Even if the issue of youths’ inclusion in the labour market was always an important item on political agendas, during the last two decades this issue had particular relevance. In the last years, unemployment for this age group had unprecedented amplitude, reaching 20.6% in Romania in 2016. Modern societies provide for youths opportunities, still they are faced with major challenges related to the education and training and access to the labour force market.
During the last decades, the world economy shifted in a continuous process from development based on traditional factors to the knowledge-based economy. The development of the knowledge-based economy leads to changes in labour force demand also: new skills and competences are required. As new technologies are implemented, the demand for high-skilled workers increases, especially for high-skilled ones in the field of Information and Communication (IC), and the demand for low-skilled workers decreases.
The paper presents a brief characterisation of the labour force market at the level of Romania‘s regions of development and an analysis of the particularities of the youths’ labour market in the context of sustainable development and of the new economy as well as some advantages of using young labour force for sustainable development.
Accelerating growth in business globalization places managers in an international environment with more ethical challenges.
Ethical principles that govern businesses in a particular culture may not match with the conditions, norms and customs of other cultures.
The article aims to examine comparatively the role of culture in explaining ethical issues and dilemmas in organizations.
Treating the issue of business ethics in companies nowadays offer different perspectives depending on the influence of the cultural context of countries where these companies operate.
Each cultural context shows its specificity, in addition to legal regulations, customs, habits or moral issues, which deserve to be highlighted in a paper on how to conduct business from an ethical perspective.
The fiscal policy is an instrument that collects resources for the state budget necessary to perform state functions; stabilize the economy; regulation of the economy and recovery growth. The most important instruments are taxes and taxpayers. Since 1989, with the transition to a market economy, a special tax policy has been known by excise taxes. Analyzing the case of Romania and the evolution of excise duties (hereinafter ED) conformity we created some regressions that illustrate the ED correlation in Romania between 2002 and 2015. The methodology used: three unifactorial regression models showing how ED impacts economic indicators such as GDP, power purchase expressed through the net annual average salary, and household final consumption expenditure. Moreover, each model has been tested and verified using statistic tests to give reliable results. In a first stage, we analyzed the correlation between GDP and consumption as endogen variable and ED, then we created another model that we kept ED as an independent variable, but we changed the dependent variable using the purchasing power as a dependent variable. Because according to the used tests we demonstrated that correlation coefficients are significant, we proceeded to explain them starting from fiscal policy and economic reality, own of these analyzed 14 years. In conclusion we highlighted below as the ED depends on GDP and consumption and the purchasing power can influence the ED. For future discussion and studies we intend to compare the results with other countries in different geographic areas in Europe
The aim of the paper is to explore the association between environmental performance and income level in the world economy in 2016. Data from Yale University and World Bank are used in a cross-country regression analysis comprising 166 countries. The gross Domestic Product per capita (based in purchased power parity, constant 2011 international dollars) in these countries is positively associated with the environmental performance index (EPI) calculated by Yale and Columbia University in 2016. Furthermore, the causality of this relationship is from GDP per capita to Environmental Performance and both Environmental Health (EH) and Ecosystem Vitality (EV) are positively associated with GDP per capita. Environmental Health (EH) is stronger related to GDP per capita, meaning that investments in public health, sanitation and infrastructure are increasing as countries develop.
The aim of the paper is to test the valability of Engel's law in the Romanian consumption dynamics after 1990. We used NIS ad EUROSTAT data to interpret the dynamics of the households' income and consumption expenditures and its structure by destinations. We explored the relationship between consumption and income through the regression analysis and found that the Engel's law applies in the Romanian economy, since 1990 to 2016, with specific evolutions and influences.
This study was carried out to empirically investigate the relationships between corruption and shadow economy among the European Union countries, over the period 2005-2014. Moreover, since one would expect corruption and shadow economy to be more common in poorer countries, this study was therefore carried out to determine how corruption and shadow economy affect economic development. The empirical findings of this study confirm a high and positive relationship between corruption and shadow economy, therefore a higher level of corruption involves a higher level of shadow economy. Regarding the influence of corruption and shadow economy on economic growth, a high and negative relationship was found. This means that increasing corruption and shadow economy negatively affects economic growth.
Packaging has always served a practical function - to hold goods together and protect it when moving toward the customer through distribution channel. Today packaging is also a container for promoting the product and making it easier and safer to use. The sheer importance of packaging functions is still growing and consequently the interest of the company is to access to the packaging more innovative and creative. The paper deals with the innovative approaches to packaging resulting in the creation of packaging with interactive active features in the form of active and intelligent packaging. Using comparative analysis, we monitored the perception of the active packaging functions in comparison to intelligent packaging function among different age categories. We identified the age categories which are most interested in these functions.
While scholarly literature abounds with research on organizational culture and CSR, this study adds knowledge to the field, redefining a new concept: that of socially responsible organizational culture. In our opinion, socially responsible organizational culture encompasses all the values, beliefs, norms and strategies that facilitate, direct, operate and develop the relations between organization and stakeholders in order to harmonize these relationships and increase economic, social and environmental performance. This paper creates a conceptual model of socially responsible organizational culture and presents a methodology for evaluating socially responsible organizational culture in the EU Member States. Results show significant variations between states, explained by differences in national culture, attitude and focus on CSR actions.
Tax avoidance is a phenomenon faced by all countries, to a lesser or greater extent, and we can say that it has begun to manifest itself since the introduction of taxes. It is known that generally taxes are not pleasing to taxpayers, especially when their level is high. However, it is important for individuals, as a whole, not to evade from their tax obligations. In this context taxes can be regarded as a necessary evil to ensure the resources needed for state functioning. But often some taxpayers are looking for ways to avoid taxes, engaging either in tax evasion to the shelter of the law or in fraudulent evasion. In this paper we present some of the aspects that motivate individuals to pay taxes. Also we analyze the situation of budgetary revenues in Alba County and also the evolution of the main income of consolidated general budget in Romania. In the end of the paper we intend to draw a parallel between shadow economy, tax burden and tax losses due to shadow economy for a sample of 32 countries. In this way we can see where underground economy and tax losses have the highest values and where are required measures to mitigate them.
The paper analyses the link between globalisation and economic growth in Romania for a time span of 24 years. Data from World Bank were used in an econometrical model in order to highlight the impact of globalisation, expressed by the KOF globalisation index and its components (economic, social and political globalisation indices) on economic growth rate. A statistical strong and positive link is found between GDP per capita dynamics and overall globalisation index as well as between GDP growth rate and economic and political globalisation, except the social dimension of globalisation which has a negative impact on economic growth in Romania for the time span 1990-2013.