The analytic element method (AEM) has been successfully used in practice worldwide for many years. This method provides the possibility of fast preliminary quantitative analysis of the hydrogeological systems or boundary conditions of the numerical models, as it is shown in the case study of groundwater source of the city of Vrbas. The AEM is also applicable for the initial analysis of a hydrogeological system, which is of particular importance in case of excess pollution that cannot be predicted where it could happen. One example of the application of the AEM is presented in this article. The analytical model is calibrated based on the measured data from several drilled monitoring wells, and this was the base for the numerical model of the contaminant transport. In this case, the AEM enabled the quick access to information on the hydrogeological system and effective response to excess pollution.
A geostatistical approach was used to model porosity of OBA field in onshore area of Niger Delta using simulation technique. The objective is to understand the spatial distribution of porosity and characterize the degree of heterogeneity of underlying formation. Porosity data from twenty-two wells were loaded into SGeMS software. Univariate statistical analysis, experimental semivariogram and Sequential Gaussian Simulation (SGS) were applied on the data. The data was close to normal approximation of Gaussian based of the results of univariate statistics. However, to construct and model horizontal and vertical semivariograms, the data was log-normalized to reduce the coefficient of variation and to get good fit of the model. Parametric semivariogram model shows the range of 72–6480 m, nugget effect of 0.006 and sills of 0.0095, 0.0099 and 0.0111. Six realizations were generated using SGS algorithm and the results suggest that any one of the realizations can independently represents the true picture of the subsurface geology within the study area. Ranking of realizations shows realization 6 as the best and realization 2 as the lowest. This model could be used as an initial condition for simulation of flow.
Vertical electrical sounding, well inventory and physicochemical analysis were conducted to evaluate soil corrosivity and aquifer protective capacity of overburden units in the basement complex terrain of Ado-Ekiti, southwestern Nigeria. The topsoil is composed of slightly corrosive materials at the eastern, southern and northeastern flanks and the central portion with resistivity values ranging from 60 to 180 Ωm. Moderately corrosive/slightly corrosive materials (with resistivity values of 10 < ρ < 60 Ωm) constitute the second layer around the eastern, southern and north-eastern flanks. Pockets of areas in the northwestern, southeastern, eastern and central parts of the metropolis are practically non-corrosive with resistivity values in excess of 200 Ωm. Zones of good, moderate, weak and poor overburden protective capacity were delineated, with longitudinal conductance (S) values of 0.7 < S < 4.9, 0.2 < S < 0.69, 0.1 < S < 0.19 and S < 0.1 mhos, respectively. On a regional consideration, 23.31%, 18.80% and 57.9% of the study area is characterised by overburden materials of poor, weak and moderate protective capacity, respectively. Only 6.02% of the area indicates good overburden protective capacity.
Stochastic, especially simulation, occasionally could be found in different geological calculations, mostly as the most advanced mapping method. Its main attribute is description of uncertainties that are inherent not only to any geological mapping dataset but also to any volumetric or probability calculation. Here are presented uncertainties in all three cases – mapping, volume calculation and probability calculation – and reasons why and when to use stochastic in them. The stochastic, and consequently simulation, is a recommended tool in case of a low number of data (<15 inputs) or large dataset (>40 inputs), but in both cases, the descriptive statistics needs to be known and is reliable. Almost the same could be applied in volumetric calculation, but the success of stochastic in probability calculation depends on large datasets, with 15 or more inputs.
In this article, the possibilities of use of geothermal energy in relation to the geothermal gradient and aquifer yield are described. Calculations represent information on potential geothermal water reserves that are not affected by cold return water inflow from the reinjection well after a certain period of production time. The calculations apply for continuous production of geothermal water from the aquifer without significant pumping breaks.
Ubisense RTLS is one of the Indoor positioning systems using an Ultra Wide Band. AOA and TDOA methods are used as a principle of positioning. The accuracy of positioning depends primarily on the accuracy of determined angles and distance differences. The paper presents the results of accuracy research which includes a theoretical accuracy prediction and a practical test. Theoretical accuracy was calculated for two variants of system components geometry, assuming the parameters declared by the system manufacturer. Total station measurements were taken as a reference during the practical test. The results of the analysis are presented in a graphical form. A sample implementation (MagMaster) developed by Globema is presented in the final part of the paper.
When surveys of corners of building structures are carried out, surveyors frequently use a compilation of two surveying methods. The first one involves the determination of several corners with reference to a geodetic control using classical methods of surveying field details. The second method relates to the remaining corner points of a structure, which are determined in sequence from distance-distance intersection, using control linear values of the wall faces of the building, the so-called tie distances. This paper assesses the accuracy of coordinates of corner points of a building structure, determined using the method of distance-distance intersection, based on the corners which had previously been determined by the conducted surveys tied to a geodetic control. It should be noted, however, that such a method of surveying the corners of building structures from linear measures is based on the details of the first-order accuracy, while the regulations explicitly allow such measurement only for the details of the second- and third-order accuracy. Therefore, a question arises whether this legal provision is unfounded, or whether surveyors are acting not only against the applicable standards but also without due diligence while performing surveys? This study provides answers to the formulated problem. The main purpose of the study was to verify whether the actual method which is used in practice for surveying building structures allows to obtain the required accuracy of coordinates of the points being determined, or whether it should be strictly forbidden. The results of the conducted studies clearly demonstrate that the problem is definitely more complex. Eventually, however, it might be assumed that assessment of the accuracy in determining a location of corners of a building using a combination of two different surveying methods will meet the requirements of the regulation [MIA, 2011), subject to compliance with relevant baseline criteria, which have been presented in this study. Observance of the proposed boundary conditions would allow for frequent performance of surveys of building structures by surveyors (from tie distances), while maintaining the applicable accuracy criteria. This would allow for the inclusion of surveying documentation into the national geodetic and cartographic documentation center database pursuant to the legal bases.
Nowadays, along with the advancement of technology one can notice the rapid development of various types of navigation systems. So far the most popular satellite navigation, is now supported by positioning results calculated with use of other measurement system. The method and manner of integration will depend directly on the destination of system being developed. To increase the frequency of readings and improve the operation of outdoor navigation systems, one will support satellite navigation systems (GPS, GLONASS ect.) with inertial navigation. Such method of navigation consists of several steps. The first stage is the determination of initial orientation of inertial measurement unit, called INS alignment. During this process, on the basis of acceleration and the angular velocity readings, values of Euler angles (pitch, roll, yaw) are calculated allowing for unambiguous orientation of the sensor coordinate system relative to external coordinate system. The following study presents the concept of AHRS (Attitude and heading reference system) algorithm, allowing to define the Euler angles.The study were conducted with the use of readings from low-cost MEMS cell phone sensors. Subsequently the results of the study were analyzed to determine the accuracy of featured algorithm. On the basis of performed experiments the legitimacy of developed algorithm was stated.
When combining spatial data from various sources, it is often important to determine similarity or identity of spatial objects. Besides the differences in geometry, representations of spatial objects are inevitably more or less uncertain. Fuzzy set theory can be used to address both modelling of the spatial objects uncertainty and determining the identity, similarity, and inclusion of two sets as fuzzy identity, fuzzy similarity, and fuzzy inclusion. In this paper, we propose to use fuzzy measures to determine the similarity or identity of two uncertain spatial object representations in geographic information systems. Labelling the spatial objects by the degree of their similarity or inclusion measure makes the process of their identification more efficient. It reduces the need for a manual control. This leads to a more simple process of spatial datasets update from external data sources. We use this approach to get an accurate and correct representation of historical streams, which is derived from contemporary digital elevation model, i.e. we identify the segments that are similar to the streams depicted on historical maps.
Demands for applications which use models of building interiors is growing and highly diversified. Those models are applied at the stage of designing and construction of a building, in applications which support real estate management, in navigation and marketing systems and, finally, in crisis management and security systems. They are created on the basis of different data: architectural and construction plans, both, in the analogue form, as well as CAD files, BIM data files, by means of laser scanning (TLS) and conventional surveys. In this context the issue of searching solutions which would integrate the existing models and lead to elimination of data redundancy is becoming more important. The authors analysed the possible input- of cadastral data (legal extent of premises) at the stage of the creation and updating different models of building’s interiors. The paper focuses on one issue - the way of describing the geometry of premises basing on the most popular source data, i.e. architectural and construction plans. However, the described rules may be considered as universal and also may be applied in practice concerned may be used during the process of creation and updating indoor models based on BIM dataset or laser scanning clouds