Ground beetles (Carabidae) were used to evaluate the bio indication environmental incidence. The ground beetle material (2,341 individuals, 30 species) was collected between 2015 and 2017 using pitfall traps in three types of forest habitats with different disturbance rates. The comparison of carabid’s sensitivity as bio indicators has been evaluated by using three methods: (i) community index of ground beetles (IKS), (ii) ellipsoid biovolume (EV) and (iii) flight ability of the carabids. Using the Monte Carlo permutation test, we did not record the statistically significant changes in IKS values, nor does a change in the representation of carabids in the bioindicative group A, E and R. On the contrary, we confirmed the statistically significant changes in the average values of ellipsoid biovolume in biotopes and between biotopes (the Friedman and Kruskal-Wallis test -ANOVA (p-value = 0.00)). A higher number of macropterous species were recorded in biotopes with high disturbance as compared to the biotopes with low disturbance.
This paper deals with the application of ecological proposals within the land consolidation project process in Slovakia. Ecological proposals form part of the Local Territorial System of the Ecological Stability project, which is a compulsory material for developing land consolidation projects. The Local Territorial System of Ecological Stability for the cadastral unit of Kocurany village was worked out in 2013. Within the area, 31 localities were selected for the implementation of ecological proposals with a total area of 154.34 ha, namely 3 biocorridors, 2 biocentres, 9 interacting elements, 8 ecostabilising elements and 9 localities with the need of anti-erosion soil cultivation, or delimitation to permanent grasslands. The main task was to analyse the rate of acceptance of the proposed measures. It was found that only 20 localities with a total area of 119.37 ha were accepted into the land consolidation project. In order to improve all the landscape functions, the integration of quality ecological proposals from the Territorial System of Ecological Stability into the land consolidation projects is necessary.
Intensification of landscape use brings along the negative effects on environmental components. These include surface water pollution. The aim was to determine the effect of landscape use on the water quality of the Žitava river. It was assumed that an area with the high proportion of anthropogenic activity would negatively affect water quality. At the same time, we assumed that an area with the lower proportion of anthropogenic use and with the higher proportion of natural and semi-natural elements contributes to self-cleaning ability of the watercourse. At the four observed sites, ammoniacal nitrogen (NH4-N), nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N), phosphate-phosphorus (PO4-P) and water conductivity were monitored. Landscape use was analysed using the database of land cover based on the CORINE Land Cover methodology. Subsequently, it was observed how the landscape use affects the water quality. It was found that the very good state, represented by the Class I water quality, is according to the measured indicators mostly present in the areas predominantly covered by forests along with extensive use of elements of the agricultural land. The area with predominance of agricultural and urbanised sites where the anthropogenic influence prevails is characterised by average water quality. As the overall water quality of the Žitava river reaches the average, it is necessary to eliminate the pollution by constructing the sewer systems in the villages through which the watercourse is passing and, in agriculture, to ensure the adherence to the legislation concerning the protection of surface water against pollution from agricultural sources.
Study of habitat segregation among the four species of cervids was conducted in the Chitwan National park of lowland Nepal. This study aimed to investigate the possible mechanisms of habitat partitioning among the four cervids - chital, sambar deer, hog deer and northern red muntjac using discriminant analysis and canonical correlation analysis. Present study considered four major niche dimensions - habitat, human disturbance, presence of predators and seasons. The data were collected by walking along the line transects that encompasses the different habitats, varying degree of human disturbances and frequency of predator’s presence. Results showed the significant effect of season on the habitat segregation among these cervids. There was higher niche overlap during summer season as compared to winter season. Habitat overlap between chital and muntjac was higher and unstable than others, which showed that they were the competitors of the same resources as enlightened by their generalist nature. Therefore, maintaining habitat heterogeneity and minimizing human disturbances will be better solutions for the coexistence of herbivores in the Chitwan National Park and can be an example for similar areas of lowland Nepal.
Climate change and its severity play an important role in forest fire regime. Analysing the forest fires events becomes a prerequisite for safeguarding the forest from further damage. We have made an assessment of the long-term forest fire events at the district level in India and identified the forest fire hotspot districts. The spatial seasonal (January to June) district wise pattern and forest fire trend were analysed. In the second part of the study area (central part of India), we have evaluated the forest fire events in grid format with respect to the climatic/weather datasets, and the statistical analysis Cramer V coefficient (CVC) was performed to understand its association/relationship with forest fire events.
The study revealed that Karbi Anglong and North Cachar Hills districts of Assam of India have the highest forest fire percent among all districts equivalent to 3.4 and 3.2% respectively. Dantewada district of Chhattisgarh and Garhchiroli district of Maharashtra of India occupied 3rd and 4th rank with value 3.1 and 3.0% respectively. The grid-based evaluation (local scale) revealed that most of the fire equivalent of 80% was found in the month of March and April. Forest fire frequency of the month of April is spread over 88 % of the grids over the study area. The 11 years average seasonal month-wise (February to June) maximum temperature, wind velocity, relative humidity, and solar radiation were found in the range of (25.9 to 40.6), (1.69 to 2.7), (0.301 to 0.736) and (14.21 to 22.98) respectively. The percentage increase (in the month of March) of maximum temperature, wind velocity, and solar radiation were 36, 39 and 62% respectively, when compared with the preceding month; whereas, a 60% decrease to relative humidity that was observed in the same month is usually the major cause of forest fire events in the month of March onwards.
The evaluation of Cramer V coefficient (CVC) values of rainfall, relative humidity, potential evapotranspiration, maximum temperature, wind velocity, and solar radiation were in decreasing order and in the range of 0.778 to 0.293. The highest value of rainfall (0.778) showed its strongest association with the forest fire events. In the month of June, these areas receive adequate rainfall, which leads to an increase in the soil moisture and a reduction in forest fuel burning capacity by absorbing the moisture and it is a strong reason for less forest fire events during this month. Geospatial technology provides an opportunity to evaluate large datasets over various spatial and temporal scales and help in decision making/formulating various policies.
The study of potential possibilities of mesofauna as bioindicator of soil contamination by heavy metals is one of the most important areas of urban ecology and soil biology. The work presents the results of ecotoxicological and bioindicative assessment of the environment and the biota of the Melitopol urbosystem of Ukraine. The dynamics of chemical properties of soils in different functional zones of the city is analysed. The complex indices of pollution of environmental components are determined. A bioindicative assessment of the ecological condition of the territory of the urbosystem on the indicators of vitality of the soil mesofauna is carried out. For the first time, regional species-bioindicators for the territory of the city of Melitopol were determined. The ecomorphic structure of soil mesofauna of various functional zones of the city was revealed.
The study was conducted within the actual area of Krempna commune in Jaslo county Podkarpackie voivodeship in Poland. Historical data and maps were analysed using the ArcGIS 10.3 program. The changes in the number of villages, householders and human population were presented. Religious composition for the year 1785 and ethnic composition for the year 1939 were evaluated. Only in the case of Ukrainian population, the Moran’s test has shown dispersed distribution (Index Moran’s for Ukrainians = −0.478664; Z = −1.684100; P = 0.092162). The total number of householders increased from 915 in the year 1785 to 1,409 householders in the year 1939 and decreased to 349 in the year 1965 and 333 in the year 2018. The traditional village system (TVS) of Krempna commune was depopulated after World War II. As a result, the agricultural abandonment and forest succession developed. Class area (CA) of settlements decreased from 1174.02 ha in the year 1939 to 248.13 ha in the year 1965 and 240.2 ha in the year 2018, and CA of forests increased from 7,268.20 ha in the year 1939 to 15,465.20 ha in the year 1965 and 15,841.3 ha in the year 2018. Villages that had begun the core of TVS together with tserkvas and chapels in the centre of village, roadside crosses and traditional private farms were lost. The scale and results of such changes are interesting for future research, mainly in terms of change in TVS infrastructure and culture.
The influence of different forest growth conditions on the content of plastid pigments in Pinus pallasiana D. Don needles in the anti-erosion planting of the steppe zone of Ukraine was investigated. The reduction in the total chlorophyll a and b concentration in the pine needles in the area with insufficient water supply (xerophilous and mesoxerophilous hygrotopes) was found, compared with more favourable conditions for water supply (mesophilous hygrotope). The reduction in the content of green pigments in arid conditions is due to chlorophyll a. Chlorophyll b showed high resistance to moisture deficiency. There is an increase in the concentration of carotenoids in pine needles in forest growth conditions with insufficient water supply (xerophilous and mesoxerophilous), compared with more favourable conditions (mesophilous), which can be explained by the adaptive role of these pigments in the processes of stabilising the functioning of the photosynthetic apparatus in adverse environment, and it is considered as a protective reaction of P. pallasiana to the effects of drought.
The process of formation and rotting of ice on lakes is an integral part of the hydrological cycle of many lakes. The conditions of the ice regime significantly influence the ecological system of lakes. The article includes calculation and analysis of errors in the determination of the spatial ice distribution (spatial resolution of 4–6 km) on Lake Onego, Lake Ladoga, Lake Segozero and Lake Vigozero within the period of 2006−2017 according to National Snow and Ice Data Center (NSIDC), National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration National Environmental Satellite, Data, and Information Service (NOAA NESDIS) data with regard to reliable Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) data (spatial resolution of 500 m). It was established that within the monitoring period, NSIDC data have the minimum mean values of errors in determining the spatial distribution of ice on lakes (3−10%) compared to NOAA NESDIS data (11−19%) and are also of more practical interest in estimating the ice coverage of lakes. The dependence of the mean value of errors that occur in the determination of the spatial distribution of ice (according to NSIDC, NOAA and NESDIS data) on the actual value of ice coverage (according to MODIS) was revealed. The results show that the NSIDC data allow estimating adequately the phases of the ice regime; however, the formation of a daily time series of ice coverage during freeze-up and break-up phases is possible only with a significant error (mean value of absolute deviations according to MODIS data is up to 35%).
The formation and quality of soil organic matter (SOM) highly depends on the input of organic material and microbial enzymatic activities. Soil extractions with specific nonpolar and polar extractives can be used to identify qualitative changes in SOM. The aim of this paper was to understand the correlations among microbial enzymatic activity and specific organic fractions in acidic spruce forest soil. Klason lignin (KL), acid soluble lignin (ASL), holocellulose (HC), SOM content, and potential enzymatic activity (FDA and phosphatase) was measured and analyzed. We sampled Dystric Cambisol of forest spruce stands (Picea abies) in Tatra National Park (Slovakia). The SOM fractions were determined gravimetrically based on their extractivity in nonpolar (dichloromethane (DME)) and polar (acetone (AE), ethanol (EE), water (WE)) solvents Total extractives content was 0.079% and nonpolar extractives 0.036%. The mean amount of polar extractives tented to increase in the order EE<AE<WE. The total lignin content was determined to be 1.079% and HC 0.774%. FDA negatively correlated with KL (r=-0.873 p<0.05) and DME (r=-0.913 p<0.05). Phosphatase positively correlated with WE (r=0.972 p<0.01) and KL (r=0.957 p<0.01).