Providing a live data monitoring of raptor abundances and spatial localization of their most important nesting areas is very helpful in building a strong future study and applying a sound strategy for effective safeguarding of these emblematic species. Using geographic information system (GIS) and global positioning system (GPS) techniques, we investigated spatial patterns of raptors distribution in the northeastern areas of Algeria during two consecutive breeding seasons (2014 and 2015). The total area sampled (31,000 km2) host diverse raptor species (14 species), among them, the threatened species Egyptian vulture (Neophron percnopterus; 108 individuals and 19 active nests) and red-footed falcon (Falco vespertinus; 12individuals). The value of the region is attested by the presence of an abundant population of nesting black kite (Milvus migrans; 337 individuals). The large-scale spatial analyses of the studied region illustrate certain similarities in nesting habitat selection among raptors. Almost all species (90% of 209 nests detected) preferred to nest within multispecies assemblages (20 raptor assemblages found) and occupied altitudinal rocky cliffs across the inland region (semi-arid zones) rather than coastal region (sub-humid zones). Among all raptor species, exclusively, the common kestrel (Falco tinnunculus) is relatively synanthropic, because it was found to breed within cities (tolerate human activities). The raptor community in the coastal versus inland regions differed by 14%. The latter area seems to be more preferred in nest building, probably consequence of their semi-arid bioclimatic and landscapes characteristics, where high elevations and grasslands forming mosaics with Oak, Alpine, and Cedar forests are patchily distributed. The study is a first mapping database of important nesting sites dispatched across the northeastern areas of Algeria, and it can be effectively used in future complementary researches that aim to elucidate environmental factors that affect raptors life cycle.
With a growing number of negative environmental burdens, several countries have increasingly begun to address the issue of environmental protection through a number of measures. Such measures include higher spending on public health, conservation of natural resources, less emission to the air, efficiency of waste sorting, reduction of water pollution, and groundwater. The contribution is based on the Environmental Performance Index (EPI) values to perform a cluster analysis of selected countries - especially OECD (organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) countries. The database needed for analysis is the EPI indicator for the years for 2008 to 2018. The result will be clusters that will include countries with similar results of the EPI indicators for the reference period. It will be important for us to track the position of the Slovak Republic in this analysis.
An Environmental Risk Assessment is an efficient technical and analytical method for analyzing environmental impacts and it supports the decision-making process connected with projects variants by using historical data collection, identification of regional risk sources, probability and impact estimation of signal risk type. In this article, an Environmental Risk Assessment was performed for groundwater quality in the region of municipal landfills in Tychy-Urbanowice (Southern Poland) to assess the impact of various factors on the quality of groundwater in the region. The assessment used qualitative and quantitative risk analysis methods, including cause and consequence analysis, completion of an effect/probability matrix and utilization of the SWOT analysis method. The results of the assessment indicate that use of the SWOT analysis was the best method for groundwater risk assessment in the examined area. The analysis included an assessment of the spatial and temporal variability of leachate and groundwater quality (using data from a groundwater monitoring system), simulation of the longevity of both the top and bottom security system, spatial planning and an assessment of the impact of other parameters on groundwater, terrain and climatic conditions. The overall result for this analysis for the likely potential groundwater hazard was a score of -4. For the purposes of further risk analyses, it is possible to consider additional factors that are likely to affect the water quality of the area under investigation or to use other methods that will be based on a time series analysis.
Energy needs are determined by three main factors: population growth, the economic development of society, and the scientific and technical level of production processes. These needs are increasing year by year in the world and in 2018 they exceeded 13.5 billion tons of oil equivalent. More and more countries are developing and implementing plans and strategies for significant coverage, within 50-100%, of their energy needs through renewable energy sources. The findings of this study revealed that Ukraine’s energy demand per year is 200 million tons of oil equivalent of energy resources. Currently, the share of renewable energy in the structure of energy consumption in Ukraine is 4.4%. The authors also acknowledged that at the same time, 115 million tons of agricultural plant waste and about 97 million tons of animal waste are generated annually in Ukraine, which makes it possible to produce 7.21 million tons of oil equivalent and 2.2 million tons of oil equivalent, respectively from these. The study found that the production of biofuels from agricultural waste will have social, economic and environmental effects. An efficiency matrix was constructed by the authors to determine these effects. Using the SWOT method of analysis, factors that will affect the development of biofuel production from agricultural waste were determined.
Mining is essentially an important income generating activity in the developing countries of the world. This is beneficial for their social and economic development and thus developing countries place a great dependence on their exploitation of mineral resources. The focal points for discussion in this article are the process of limestone mining, growth trends in limestone production, allocation of royalties, benefit sharing between limestone miners and local communities. The article undertakes an income-expenditure analysis of limestone contractors and transporters and considers local environmental issues including land degradation, rehabilitation, and compensation problems connected with the mining process. This study has been carried out in the Banor-Shiva limestone mining region which is located in the Sirmaur District of Himachal Pradesh State in India. The study calculated compound annual growth rates and benefit sharing between the miners and local people, and made a calculation of transport costs based on the mining rules in force and the actual practice prevailing in the region. The overall compound annual growth rates for limestone production are 16.2%, 1.6 % and 3.9% and for royalties are 14.1%, 8.5%, and 7.8 5 respectively for the State, District, and Banor-Shiva mining region over the study period. However, these growth rates have continuously decelerated and even found to be negative between the periods following the National Mineral Policies Act of 1993 and 2008. There is a sizeable divergence between the benefits from limestone mining shared between the indigenous communities and limestone miners highlighting the poor land acquisition practices in the study area. The financial benefits awarded by the miners in 2016-17 to the local communities are 1.22% whereas miners have appropriated the lion’s share with 81.37% of total limestone value. The revenue to the Government is 4.30% of market value of limestone. The transportation of limestone from quarry sites to the point of final sale is the largest cost factor in limestone miners’ expenditure which is 10% of the total market value of limestone. Adverse impacts of limestone mining operations in the vicinity such as public health problems, change in land use and cropping patterns, water pollution, lack of rehabilitation of the abandoned mines and unjust division of limestone receipts are the main contentious issues in the study area which are affecting the production and process of limestone mining. These have been reflected in the declining growth rates in production and royalties accrued from limestone produce.
The goal of the present research is to analyze parameters of a bundle of logs for various models of forwarders in the Pryazha division of forestry of the Republic of Karelia. The investigated parameters were mass and volume of a bundle of logs, stacking factor of the bundle and the number of wood assortments in the bundle. The following models of forwarders have been investigated: John Deere 1210E, John Deere 1110E, Ponsse Elk, Ponsse Wisent, Amkodor 2661-01, Rottne F13D, Rottne F15D, Rottne F18D. We estimated the parameters of bundles formed from spruce sawlog 6.1 m long and bundles formed from spruce pulpwood 4 m long. Data on stem forms from harvester recorders have been collected to assess the parameters of a bundle of logs. Parameters of bundles have been determined based on computer experiment. The experiment consists of the following steps: random selection of the stem from the database; simulation of the cut-to-length process; simulation of log stacking process; calculation of parameters of a bundle of logs. We found that parameters of bundles vary to a quite substantial extent. Average variability of a bundle of logs formed of 6.1 m long spruce sawlog is 4.5 t, variability of the volume is 5.8 m3, and variability of the number of wood assortments in a bundle is 49 pcs. For a bundle made up of 4 m long spruce pulpwood variability of mass is on average 2.8 t, that of volume – 2.09 m3, that of the number of wood assortments – 57 pc. The presented results can inform transportation of wood on cutting areas, planning timber harvesting, as well as development new logging machines.
Genetic studies have presented increasing indications about the complexity of the interactions between Homo sapiens, Neanderthals and Denisovans, during Pleistocene. The results indicate potential replacement or admixture of the groups of hominins that lived in the same region at different times. Recently, the time of separation among these hominins in relation to the Last Common Ancestor – LCA has been reasonably well established. Events of mixing with emphasis on the Neanderthal gene flow into H. sapiens outside Africa, Denisovans into H. sapiens ancestors in Oceania and continental Asia, Neanderthals into Denisovans, as well as the origin of some phenotypic features in specific populations such as the color of the skin, eyes, hair and predisposition to develop certain kinds of diseases have also been found. The current information supports the existence of both replacement and interbreeding events, and indicates the need to revise the two main explanatory models, the Multiregional and the Out-of-Africa hypotheses, about the origin and evolution of H. sapiens and its co-relatives. There is definitely no longer the possibility of justifying only one model over the other. This paper aims to provide a brief review and update on the debate around this issue, considering the advances brought about by the recent genetic as well as morphological traits analyses.
Land application of manure that contains antibiotics and resistant bacteria may facilitate the establishment of an environmental reservoir of antibiotic-resistant microbes, promoting their dissemination into agricultural and natural habitats. The main objective of this study was to search for acquired antibiotic resistance determinants in the gut microbiota of wild boar populations living in natural habitats.
Material and Methods
Gastrointestinal samples of free-living wild boars were collected in the Zemplén Mountains in Hungary and were characterised by culture-based, metagenomic, and molecular microbiological methods. Bioinformatic analysis of the faecal microbiome of a hunted wild boar from Japan was used for comparative studies. Also, shotgun metagenomic sequencing data of two untreated sewage wastewater samples from North Pest (Hungary) from 2016 were analysed by bioinformatic methods. Minimum spanning tree diagrams for seven-gene MLST profiles of 104 E. coli strains isolated in Europe from wild boars and domestic pigs were generated in Enterobase.
In the ileum of a diarrhoeic boar, a dominant E. coli O112ab:H2 strain with intermediate resistance to gentamicin, tobramycin, and amikacin was identified, displaying sequence type ST388 and harbouring the EAST1 toxin astA gene. Metagenomic analyses of the colon and rectum digesta revealed the presence of the tetQ, tetW, tetO, and mefA antibiotic resistance genes that were also detected in the gut microbiome of four other wild boars from the mountains. Furthermore, the tetQ and cfxA genes were identified in the faecal microbiome of a hunted wild boar from Japan.
The gastrointestinal microbiota of the free-living wild boars examined in this study carried acquired antibiotic resistance determinants that are highly prevalent among domestic livestock populations.
Quasiamidostomum fulicae (Rudolphi, 1819) Lomakin, 1991, is a species of which the systematic position is still unclear, and it is reported in the literature under many synonyms. In the present study, an attempt has been made at establishing the ultimate systematic position of Quasiamidostomum fulicae against the backdrop of selected Amidostomatinae species.
Material and Methods
The parasites were identified based on measurements of external and internal structures. Ecological analysis of Q. fulicae was carried out using the quantitative indices (frequency, prevalence, mean intensity, relative abundance, and dominance index). Statistical analyses (discriminant analysis) were performed on measurement data.
The intestines of 77 coots were examined. They yielded a total of 398 parasites, including 67 identified as Q. fulicae. Both males and females were located in the muscular gizzard. The morphometric analysis of Q. fulicae in this study showed the dimensions of all the internal organs to be in agreement with measurements reported by other authors. The discriminant analysis, used to find the differences between the examined nematode species (Amidostomoides acutum, A. petrovi, A. monodon, Amidostomum anseris, and Quasiamidostomum fulicae), gave highly significant results (P < 0.0001) with respect to both males and females.
The results justify the separation of Q. fulicae from the genus Amidostomum.
The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of algal oil with very high level of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, C22:6n-3) used as fat source in the diet for laying hens, on egg yolk lipids fatty acid composition, as well as egg production and egg quality indices, in comparison with other dietary fat sources. The experiment was carried out on 168 ISA Brown hens (25 to 60 wks of age), allocated to 7 groups of 12 replicates (cages), with two birds in each cage. The experimental diets were supplemented with 2% of different fat sources, i.e. soybean oil (SO), coconut oil (CO), rapeseed oil (RO), linseed oil (LO), camelina oil (CAO), fish oil (FO), or algal oil (AO). Laying performance indices, i.e. egg production, mean egg weight, feed intake, feed conversion ratio, or egg and eggshell quality parameters were not affected by used fat sources (P>0.05). Dietary fat sources significantly influenced on egg yolk lipids fatty acids composition. Thus, AO addition caused some changes in the yolk lipid profile that were favorable from the dietary perspective, i.e., increased concentration of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and DHA (P<0.05). However, boiled eggs from hens fed a diet with AO were characterized by an inferior flavour and taste to those from other groups. In conclusion, the results of this experiment, have shown that the use of AO in the laying hens nutrition is an efficient way to increase the deposition of n-3 long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 LCPUFAs) in eggs, without negative effect on egg performance, however further researches, aiming to establish optimal AO dietary level that does not adversely affect the organoleptic properties of eggs, are needed.