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Abstract

Accessing finances for housing has been a major problem for people on low-incomes and this has been weighing heavily on them as they try to access housing. Financial institutions in the city of Bulawayo are failing to come up with financial products that suit low-income clients. There are an estimated 110000 low-income residents among the estimated 250000 residents of Cowdray Park low-density residential area in Bulawayo. This has also affected their right to the city as they have been excluded from the housing delivery system. There are so many initiatives that have been available to those on a low-income but these initiatives have rarely benefited the urban poor of the city. This research has examined how the financial services that exist in the housing sector have been crafted to benefit the urban poor. The research employed a mixed methods approach to the inquiry, where a questionnaire was the main quantitative method used and in-depth interviews and observations were the qualitative methods that complemented it. The research found that there are various financial services that are available in Zimbabwe, but these financial facilities rarely help the urban poor. The majority of the poor have been managing without any financial support and this has been stalling their access to housing. Most housing products are fashioned along neo-liberal economic principles that have very little to offer the urban poor. This has therefore denied the urban poor in the city of Bulawayo their right to the city. Most cities in Zimbabwe are struggling to satisfy their housing demand as they have long housing waiting lists. Research therefore recommends the crafting of financial facilities that are best targeted on the urban poor, and are specially adapted to their financial conditions.

Abstract

Slum redevelopment is occurring at a rapid pace in many African cities. This paper examines the urban development of contemporary Luanda, the capital of Angola. Central to this examination is an analysis of the city’s slums according to Foucault’s concept of governmentality. The focus is on the chaotic urban development that has resulted from the civil war and on the effects of poverty and gentrification in many of Luanda’s slums. The policy of violence towards slum population adopted by the municipality appears to define a technology of domination, the subjection of the individual to the formation of the state. However, with the high earnings obtained from oil production, the country clearly has the resources needed to fund investments in electricity and utility systems. The continuing persistence of slums and a housing policy based on neglect signifies a form of governmentality, adopted as a means of government coercion and a way of dominating the poor population. The paper closes with a set of policy implications for action.

Abstract

The economic and social drivers of democratisation and the emergence and establishment of democratic institutions are longstanding themes of academic discourse. Within this broad body of literature, it has been argued that the process of urbanisation is also conducive to the emergence and consolidation of democracy through a number of different channels. Cities offer better access to education and facilitate organised public action and the demand for more democratic rule and respect of human rights. The nexus between urbanisation and human rights is the theme that is taken up in the present paper. Using a sample of 123 countries for the period 1981–2011, the paper examines empirically the association between urbanisation and human empowerment using the Cingranelli-Richards Index. In broad terms, the findings reported herein do not point to a strong nexus across all income groups. Nevertheless, there is evidence suggesting the presence of such a statistically significant positive association in specific cases.

Zusammenfassung

Verschiebungen bzw. wechselseitige Bedingtheiten von neuen gesellschaftlichen Ein- und Ausschlüssen im Prozess der Internationalisierung und Diversifizierung von Städten genauer zu betrachten, ist Ziel dieses Beitrags. Mithilfe der Paradoxie im Sinne eines heuristischen Zugangs werden scheinbar widersprüchliche Ein- und Ausschlüsse von Migration in einem langjährigen stadtentwicklungspolitischen Schwerpunktraum der Stadt Leipzig untersucht. Eine Analyse der lokalen Berichterstattung und stadtentwicklungspolitischer Dokumente zeigt, dass im Diskurs um die Leipziger Eisenbahnstraße eine klassische urbane Diskursfigur reproduziert wird. Dabei wird Migration einerseits als produktiver Faktor im Sinne einer ökonomischen Ressource verhandelt und andererseits als Faktor unproduktiver Devianz problematisiert. Da Formen der Inklusion gewünschter Zuwanderung an anderer Stelle an Ausschlüsse und Kontrolle unerwünschter Zuwanderung gekoppelt werden, entstehen paradox erscheinende diskursive Logiken im Umgang mit einem pluralisierten und stark durch Migration geprägten Stadtraum. Der Ausruf einer Parallelwelt, der an eine zu integrierende Migrationsbevölkerung gerichtet ist, sowie die Beschwörung der „Stadt der Vielfalt“, die eher diffus und damit weitestgehend anonym bleibt, stehen jedoch im Widerspruch zu einer allgemeinen Anerkennung migrationsgesellschaftlicher Realität. Trotzdem oder gerade weil Leipzig eine Vorreiterrolle im ostdeutschen Kontext in puncto Migration einnimmt, entbehrt sie (noch) der Selbstverständlichkeit und bleibt eine hochgradig sensible Angelegenheit.

Abstract

A policy instrument promoting a free fare public transport policy (FFPT) has recently been put into practice in 66 municipalities across Poland. By contributing to the academic debate on the concept of FFPT (e.g. ), the main goal of this paper is to create a typology of the schemes where FFPT is in operation in Poland based on analyses of a geographical mapping of these projects. This study analyses how different municipalities are implementing the concept in order to define a typology of FFTP projects and to understand how the development landscape of the urban transport system is changing in the light of free fare transport policies, topics which are not fully covered in the academic literature. The findings confirm that there is a new dynamic in the development of urban transport systems and permit the identification of key characteristics of this trend. Besides the typology of implementation of FFPT, the study also presents an up-to-date inventory of FFPT projects with the key characteristic features of each system. Although the study does not provide specific recommendations regarding the introduction of a FFPT policy, it represents a good starting point for future and more detailed studies. Such studies are necessary in order to understand the role of FFPT not only in the context of the development of a given transport system, its impact on modal split, and travel behaviour, but also to uncover the different politics which lie behind them.

Abstract

During the 1990s the Celtic Tiger era began in the Republic of Ireland. This article tracks the response of the Irish Urban System to that remarkable period of growth ended abruptly with the Global Economic Crisis of 2008. Using Small Area Population Statistics from Ireland’s Central Statistics Office for the years 1996, 2002, 2006 and 2011 it was possible to record growth across the towns and cities of Ireland that constituted the Irish Urban System. The location, size, type and rates of change were recorded and mapped with a view towards discovering the extent to which the urban hierarchy and the spatial distribution was being altered, and by what geographical processes. Over 15 years the national population grew by 26% with most of that growth taking place in urban centres. A clear diffusion outwards from the Dublin region is noticeable and the capital’s role in systemic change is explored alongside other factors. The article highlights the changing nature of growth over time and, based on the empirical observations made, identifies a sequence of clear stages in the growth of the urban system. The article concludes with a proposal for a Model of Urban System Evolution under conditions of Rapid Economic Growth based on the distinct phases, or stages, of growth identified in Ireland’s towns and cities from 1996–2011.

Abstract

This article critically discusses how Turkish migrants as an established migrant group have interpreted and acted on the arrival of Syrian refugees in Berlin from 2015 onwards and whether their responses have resulted in new spaces in which new contestations and/or solidarities emerge. To this end, it focuses on the processes and the ways in which established groups (re-)articulate their urban citizenship and belonging to a particular urban space in relation to newcomers. Building on the analytical framework of relational and agency-centered articulation of urban citizenship and drawing on research data collected in the Kreuzberg and Neukölln neighborhoods of Berlin, the analysis has two main findings. Firstly, Turkish migrants have been involved in solidarity activities and contribute to a more inclusive urban citizenship regarding Syrian refugees. At the same time, they perceive Syrian refugees as a threat to their standing in the city and their right to the usage of urban space. This results in a more defensive urban citizenship against the refugees. Secondly, the unequal power relations and local, national and transitional dynamics act as intervening factors shaping Turkish migrants' responses to Syrian refugees and the process of urban citizenship formation.

Kurzfassung

Der Beitrag beantwortet zwei bislang kaum behandelte Fragen: Wie gut schöpfen deutsche Regionen ihr Potenzial zur Erzeugung regenerativer Energien aus und welche Faktoren beeinflussen diese Ausbaueffizienz? Mit dem neuartigen quantitativ-empirischen Konzept der Ausbaueffizienz wird das Ausmaß ermittelt, mit dem Regionen ihre natürlichen und sozioökonomischen Potenziale zur Erzeugung von Energie aus erneuerbaren Quellen zu einem bestimmten Zeitpunkt ausgeschöpft haben. Dieser Ansatz erlaubt unter Berücksichtigung der Energieträger Wind-, Solar- und Biogasenergie einen relativen Vergleich von Regionen, ihre Ausbaueffizienz über die Zeit sowie die Identifikation von Best-practice-Regionen. Mittels der innovativen Methodik werden deutsche Landkreise im Zeitraum 2000 bis 2014 verglichen. Dabei kommt eine robuste nichtparametrische Effizienzanalyse zum Einsatz, deren Ergebnisse durch qualitative Experteninterviews in ausgewählten Kreisen Niedersachsens validiert werden. Die Ergebnisse der Untersuchung zeigen große regionale Unterschiede in der Ausbaueffizienz sowohl zwischen Landkreisen als auch zwischen (Landkreisen in verschiedenen) Bundesländern. Auch bezüglich der Art der drei betrachteten regenerativen Energieträger unterscheiden sich die deutschen Landkreise erheblich. Die empirischen Befunde sind räumlich und zeitlich sehr differenziert und erlauben auch deshalb diverse lokal- und landespolitische Schlussfolgerungen. Insbesondere sollten Landkreise (und Bundesländer) mit bislang eher geringer Ausbaueffizienz von solchen mit hoher Ausbaueffizienz lernen. In der Breite können diese politischen Lerneffekte nachhaltig zum Gelingen der Energiewende beitragen.

Zusammenfassung

Ausgehend von der These, dass Stadtentwicklungspolitik ein wesentlicher Bestandteil einer zunehmenden local governance of migration ist, untersucht dieser Beitrag die Schnittstellen zwischen migrationsbezogenen Politiken und migrantischen Handlungspraxen einerseits und Stadtentwicklungsstrategien andererseits. Es wird davon ausgegangen, dass europäische Städte in übergeordnete (supra)nationale Migrationsregime eingegliedert sind, die deren institutionelles Handeln im Umgang mit Migration beeinflussen. Der Vergleich zweier Städte in unterschiedlichen Migrationsregimen ermöglicht es, Gemeinsamkeiten und Unterschiede der Verbindung zwischen Migrations- und Stadtentwicklungsfragen, die sich trotz oder aufgrund der Einbindung in unterschiedliche Regime ergeben, herauszuarbeiten. Betrachtet werden Genua in Italien und Manchester in Großbritannien. Der Vergleich zeigt, dass sowohl Städte mit wenig institutionalisierten Migrationspolitiken als auch mit langjährigen migrationsbezogenen Politiken sich insbesondere auf zivilgesellschaftliche Akteure verlassen. Migration-led regeneration findet statt, wird in den Regenerierungsstrategien jedoch nicht explizit thematisiert.