Introduction: Although there has been considerable discussion regarding the presence of therapeutic aspects of humour in the nurse educational programme and syllabus, little is known about the use of humour in the nurse - patient relationship and the needed topics in the Slovene educational system for nurses. From educational and medical perspectives, humour is anything that evokes laughter and it has been proven that laughter contributes to physical health. A sense of humour in nursing has a conformist, quantitative and productive importance which is manifested through the essential elements of humour: meta-communication sensitivity, personal affection for humour and emotional admissibility. As nurses spend a lot of time with patients, humour adds to the quality of their work as well as to the nurses’ satisfaction with their work with patients. The aim of this paper is to contribute to a better understanding of the significance of humour in nursing both for the employees and for the patients and to discuss humour within the framework of nursing profession in Slovenia. The specific objective of our study is to explore the attitudes of Slovenian nurses towards humour and their actual use of humour during their interaction with patients. Methods: For the purpose of this study, a quantitative research methodology was adopted. A questionnaire was used to collect data on the topic and a set of statistical analyses (frequency distribution method, the χ2 and Spearman rank correlation test) was performed on the data obtained. Results: Our study shows that Slovenian nurses are prone to the use of humour in their work and they welcome it as an integral part of their work with patients. We found that humour also enhances their sense of belonging to the nursing profession and serves as a tool for socialization. Discussion: Humour, employed in nursing can help overcome certain difficulties which nurses face in the workplace as they also try to fulfil some social objectives and get socialized via humour. These psychological-sociological features of humour stand out as cognitive and social benefits of the positive emotions of joy, the use of humour for social communication and their influence on the release of stress and coping, which draws from the ergonomics of humour as social interaction. Therefore, topics of humour in nurse education are required. Limitations: 279 Slovenian nurses with different levels of education participated in the study. Conclusions: Humour should be used by nurses since it is important in their professional interaction with patients. It can be used as a bridge between individuals and can serve as a means of individual's integration into groups, cultures and, consequently, into the society as a whole.
Introduction: The possibility of joint child care after divorce in which parental responsibilities are distributed equally among parents has been implemented in the Czech Republic since 1998. Under certain circumstances, joint custody is considered to be the best solution with regard to further prospects of individual children and also their relationships with their divorcing parents. The solution of joint custody issues happens between parents and/or their family members. Lawyers, psychologists, doctors, and social workers adopt a legitimate attitude to each individual case. Primarily, psychologists provide empirical proofs of the beneficial effect of joint custody concept. In Czech conditions, teachers are the least heard group in this respect. Methods: A research was carried out in which we utilized the method of thematic writing. Twenty-seven written products, written by the kindergarten teachers were analyzed (the length ranged from 2000 to 2500 words). The content analysis was used with the research aim to reveal their point of view of the joint child custody concept and their experience with children in joint custody. Results: The teachers’ attitude to joint custody was negative, they more leaned towards the opinion that joint custody is not an optimal solution. They perceived the concept of joint custody as beneficial but, on the other hand, as problematic and hardly feasible by divorced people as they often remain in conflict. Based on their experience with children in joint custody, it is fully dependent on the ability of parents to agree on it and to fulfil their children’s interests together. However, these are not, according to the teachers, very often taken into consideration in joint custody. Discussion: In their reflections, kindergarten teachers confirmed the generally accepted controversial conclusions and experience related to primarily practical side of joint custody. They underlined the accepted opinion that it is always necessary to assess joint custody in its relations to a particular case and in respect to its inability to substitute normally functioning and complete families. Limitaitons: The main research limit concerns the choices of research sample and amount of material based on 27 written products. The first version of the report underwent a participant validation in order to reduce possible distortion during the interpretation of empirical data. Conclusions: The research results have the potential to introduce further valuable and pedagogical perspective into the discussion about joint custody issues. It can even serve as a stimulus to optimize the content of teacher education with the aim to encompass various elements of educational reality of current kindergarten.
Introduction: More and more children and adolescents suffering from chronic diseases are included in common school education. Unfortunately, teachers do not feel confident enough about how to cope, fulfil and satisfy the needs of these children in the educational, social and emotional spheres. The aim ofp this part of research was to discover how teachers work with chronically ill children of younger school-age. There were three aims. The first aim was to investigate if teachers have basic awareness and knowledge about selected chronic diseases in children of younger school-age. The second aim was to discover what experience and attitudes towards chronically ill children of younger school-age teachers have. The third aim was to discover, how the quality of school care of chronically ill children of younger school-age can be improved. Methods: We used qualitative research methodology. Data were processed and gathered from semi-structured interviews. Interviews were conducted with 12 teachers. Results: Our findings revealed that teachers should be acquainted with the disease itself and its consequences in all aspects. In some cases, teachers must be acquainted also with the practical aspects of a chronic disease, e.g. first aid and application of drugs and aids in order to assist children if necessary. Discussion: The study offers unique insights into primary teachers’ views and experiences with chronically ill children, how teachers work with chronically ill pupils of younger school-age and how the quality of school care of chronically ill children of younger school-age can be improved. Limitations: The research is still being conducted and therefore, it is not possible to provide more detailed results and conclusions. However, our main aim was to draw attention to the very problem from the point of view of teachers themselves and to highlight their vivid experiences. Conclusions: It is necessary to create interconnected networks of experts and families who will cooperate and communicate and who will participate in satisfying needs of a child together. These networks will ensure that children will be integrated into common school life in spite of their disease without serious consequences affecting their development and education.
Introduction: In our conditions and in the world, there is a tradition of the sequence of sequential communication exchanges in the interaction of a teacher and pupils, which was examined in the analysis of the processes and structures in educational communication. This tradition can be continued from the perspective of research at the 1st stage of elementary school education. Purpose: The aim of the study is to present the findings of a research on the issues of pupils’ questions. The research question is whether the existing results of educational research on the educational interaction and teacher-student communication in the educational process at the first stage of elementary schools also capture the characteristics of pupils’ questions. We will investigate the perception of dialogic teaching and pupils’ question in educational research. The sequence of sequential communication exchanges in the interaction between teachers and pupils, which was examined in the analysis of the processes and structures of educational communication, has in our country and in the world a tradition which can be followed in terms of research on teaching at the first stage of primary schools. One of the aspects of research on the interaction and communication in the classroom are the views of teachers who are discovering what a learner knows, and what he/she thinks about the communicated content and curriculum. But we are mainly interested in the results of educational research from the perspective of the pupil and his/her questions in the classroom. Methods: In our research, our intention was to analyse pupils’ questions which are to supplement their knowledge, or to find out more information that would help them deal with learning tasks. We were interested in previous investigations and were seeking for clarification whether the pupils’ questions are inconsistent, which would reveal misconceptions and wrong ideas in the understanding of the teaching content. Conclusions: The most frequently, pupils’ answer to the teacher’s questions were detected. The conclusions show the current results of pedagogical research in the context of dialogic teaching, they do not capture the characteristics of pupils’ questions in teaching at the 1st grade of elementary schools.
Introduction: In our paper, we focus mainly on defining the term of speech therapy prevention, on the anchoring of speech therapy prevention in the legislation and education, the teacher as an actor and direct mediator of the primary speech therapy prevention, and his competence. The research part describes the data obtained by in-depth interviews with teachers in nursery schools in the Zlín region. Methods: The empirical part of the study was conducted through a qualitative research. We have obtained research data via interviews with teachers from nursery schools in the Zlín Region. The data, after transcribing them into written form, were subsequently analysed and interpreted. Results: Based on the results of the research, we can identify one of the most significant categories in the survey of the method of implementation of speech therapy prevention in selected nursery schools in the South Moravian Region. It’s called “Teacher as an amateur speech therapist”. Within this category, we can also distinguish between three types of teachers: teacher - speech therapist, speech therapy assistant as a substitute of speech therapist, teacher - preventionist, and speech therapist. Discussion: What is the cause of this situation? Poor education? Legislation? Pedagogical practice? Limitations: The research was realized only in the South Moravian Region (CZ) and cannot be applied to the entire population. Conclusions: It is evident from the results of the research that some respondents have insufficient knowledge about the competences of individual actors in the speech therapy prevention process as well as about the realization of speech therapy prevention in kindergartens.
Introduction: This paper deals with an important aspect of preschool teachers’ everyday professional life - interacting with children during educational activities in kindergarten environment. The research of real situations in kindergarten, still rare in Czech pedagogical discourse, indicates the limitedness of preschool teachers’ communication following already fixed communication structures and patterns. There is not much evidence that teacher-child communication in kindergarten is initiated by children with any frequency. The aim of our research study is to describe preschool children’s initiations in communication with preservice preschool teachers and identify teachers’ strategies in mutual communication. Methods: The research is based on qualitative analysis of data obtained through participated unstructured observation (37 video recordings of micro educational situations with the duration of 3 to 15 minutes were collected) and written reflection of pre-service preschool teachers (55 participants). Each part of the observation took place in a different class of a standard kindergarten. In one case, it was a homogeneous class of children aged 5-6 years, and in the second, a heterogeneous class with children aged between 3 and 5 years. Our data material in the form of written reflections and transcribed video recordings was then processed through the qualitative content analysis. Results: Research results show children breaking the communication structure managed by the teacher, and the teacher’s strategies in these situations. We identified five main circumstances of preschool children’s initiations as communicating their own experiences or associations related to the topic presented by the teacher. Discussion: Our findings show a certain range of responses of future teachers to children’s initiation in interaction during educational activities. Besides evidence of releasing communication in terms of teacher management, less suitable kinds of responses to children’s initiation appear. The teacher is not able to give up control over the ongoing communication. Limitations: Selected research sample consists of pre-service teachers, who represent only a partial sample of potential interactions in the kindergarten environment. Thus, to some teachers, the findings apply only partially in practice; with other teachers, we could possibly expand our research even deeper. This choice to use only a partial sample reflects both practicality and the need to improve the competence of future teachers through recording their unscripted interactions with children. Conclusions: Children need teachers who are sensitive to their initiations and offer space for children to initiate communication. If we want to have students at the primary and secondary levels of education with developed life skills and the ability to discuss and argue, we need to offer such manner of communication as early as in kindergartens.
Introduction: The paper deals with the issues of the education of senior patients within nursing care. The aim of the paper is to find out the level of nurses’ knowledge and skills in educating elderly patients and to discover how these are reflected in the reality of clinical practice. It is a case study focused on showing the current real state of clinical practice related to the given topic. Methods: This paper will introduce the outcomes of a qualitative research (semistructured interview, semi-structured observation, documents analysis) based on theoretical background. The research was carried out during the survey fellowship in the Slovak Republic and the respondents were nurses working in standard hospital departments. Certain phenomena, relations and influencing factors were clarified through the follow-up analysis. The gathered data were processed by using qualitative methods in the form of case studies. Results: The qualitative survey has revealed certain deficiencies in nurses’ knowledge and in the reality of the education of elderly patients in clinical practice. Discussion: The deficiencies in knowledge and skills are essential in the reality of clinical practice. Limitations: The research sample was made up of educating nurse/nurses working in geriatrics, in long-term care departments or internal departments. It included a total of 16 respondents. Conclusions: Sufficient attention should be paid to the training of nurses which should be focused on the specificities of educating seniors/senior patients as well as on the reality of education that is performed. It is necessary to provide training for working with this specific age group even in pre-gradual nursing education.
Introduction: The family life of a child of compulsory school age is influenced by the way that a child’s educational career is discussed and practically supported. This is transmitted into normal family life through the completion of the child’s homework and any other school-related responsibilities. The parent is considered an actor who contributes significantly to the supervision of the child’s homework. Methods: This research project explored how parents and children describe their experience of homework through semi-structured interviews with elementary school pupils and their parents. The results are presented in our study. Seven, mostly university-educated parents and six pupils were interviewed at the start of compulsory schooling, when the bonds and interaction are the most intensive between parents and children in the context of homework. The transcribed interviews were analysed using the technique of open coding. Codes identified were repeatedly read, reviewed and subsequently grouped into categories with the aim of description and explanation. Results: The survey revealed that the completion of homework in the parent - child interaction is an implicit part of everyday family life. Homework and advance home preparation are considered to be the responsibility of the parent as well as the child, on the other hand, the home preparation is also time-consuming and gendermarked. Limitations: The limitations of the study relate primarily to the construction of the research sample. The intentional sample of parents was determined by socioeconomic status and quantity and also by the parents’ willingness to share their parenting experience, and for the child by the extent of data gathered. In further research, this will be supported by observation in the home setting. Conclusions: The research findings contribute to a description of the child’s life in the family and confirm the importance of inevitable parental participation in their educational socialization at the beginning of compulsory school attendance.
Introduction: The development of a child takes place according to certain laws, each one of which has its own individual dynamics, so, every child becomes a unique human being. Children gradually collect information about themselves and the world around them. They receive feedback about themselves from people who take care of them - mainly their family, mother and father. Their positive responses support the child’s feeling of being loved, worthy of interest, which has a positive effect on them. Purpose: Family environment is likely to have the strongest impact on the child’s behaviour. Educational procedures, family climate, relationships between parents, those between parents and the child, the degree and methods of satisfying the child’s needs, moral values, and social ties of the family - they all affect the child’s behaviour. Methods: In the presented paper, traditional desk research methods were used. Conclusions: Behaviour is learned and has its purpose. Family teaches the child many things, e.g. how to cope with simple tasks, as well as about complex social inclusion.