Causal relations between parenting stress, attachment, and life satisfaction tested in previous studies are multidirectional, even though grounded in respective theories. Additionally, relations between them are dependent on multiple factors viable to act as potential confounders. We set out to analyze the relation between parenting stress of mothers and their life satisfaction as mediated through their general attachment orientations treated as personal resources hypothesized to act as the filter toward their parenting experiences. Three questions were asked: Is the parenting stress-life satisfaction link mediated through attachment? Does the mediation mechanism differ when attachment dimensions of avoidance and anxiety are analyzed? Is the mediation effect sensitive to potential confounding factors? Data from 575 mothers of adolescents were collected using self-reports. Results revealed that parenting stress-life satisfaction relation is partially mediated through attachment, and that the mediation mechanism is different when anxious or avoidant attachment dimensions are analyzed. Sensitivity analysis revealed that mediation models are sensitive to potentially confounding factors. Trying to tackle potential confounders, we tested economic status and the number of children the mother ever had. None of them had enough power to decrease mediation effects. Results are discussed in terms of theoretical and practical implications, causality, and recommendations for further research.
Our study was designed to examine an individuals’ affective traits (i.e., dispositional affectivity and emotional intelligence) and job stressors (i.e., interpersonal conflicts, quantitative workload and organizational constraints) on emotional exhaustion. One hundred and fifty-three employees participated in our study. All of them worked in teams and their job required face-to-face contacts with clients. Our main hypothesis was that emotional intelligence acts as a moderator in the relationship between job stressors and emotional exhaustion. The results indicate that employees who report more interpersonal conflicts at work, greater quantitative workloads and greater organizational constraints also report more symptoms of emotional exhaustion. Moreover, the results show that all three stressors were significant as predictors of emotional exhaustion beyond the employee’s dispositional affectivity. The moderating effect of emotional intelligence was observed in the relationship between interpersonal conflicts at work and emotional exhaustion. The relationship between interpersonal conflicts and emotional exhaustion was observed only among employees who were low in emotional intelligence. In contrast, interpersonal conflicts and emotional exhaustion were unrelated among employees who were high in emotional intelligence. The results are discussed from the Job Demands–Resources model perspective.
My research purpose was to evaluate the contribution of self-evaluation, the locus of control and emotions in generating destructive coping strategies by junior high school students in a social conflict situation. I used the proprietary questionnaire to test adolescents’ coping strategies (KSMK), Self-evaluation Scale (SES) by M. Rosenberg, the Locus of Control Questionnaire (KBPK) by G. Krasowicz and A. Kurzyp-Wojnarska, and the Three-Factor Inventory of Personality States and Traits (TISCO) by C. Spielberger and K. Wrześniewski. Empirical studies were carried out in junior high schools in Wroclaw and the surrounding area. They involved 893 adolescents (468 girls and 425 boys) aged 13‒15. I stated in my research that low self-evaluation of a young man’s abilities, a strong conviction about the impact others have on positive or negative consequences of events and reacting with fear and anger co-exists with destructive adolescent coping strategies.
In my article I identified the meaning of conflict in parent-adolescent relationship for adolescent family satisfaction. It was found that family satisfaction is positively related to seeking compromise by the parents, as well as being negatively related to parental aggression. Adolescent satisfaction is higher when conflicts with the father more often result in improving their relationship (intimacy), and when conflicts with the mother end less frequently with escalation and frustration. A significant parental behavioral role in conflict with the adolescent was confirmed; however, the strongest predictor of adolescent family satisfaction is in seeking compromise by the father. In accordance with Steinberg’s emotional distancing hypothesis, with the adolescent’s age family satisfaction was found to decrease, and conflicts escalated and frustration in mother-adolescent relationship increased.
Zdenka Stránská, Ivana Poledňová and Tereza Koběrská
Our article deals with social conflicts in “troubled” schoolchildren from the perspective of their teachers. Using Behaviour Assessment System for Children – Teacher Rating Scale (Czech method), a total of 92 schoolchildren have been tested. All the children were identified by their teachers as having behavioural difficulties. The children with behavioural difficulties have been found to engage especially in peer-related social conflicts, which involved negative relationships with classmates and aggressive behaviour, particularly in the younger children (1st to 5th grade of compulsory education). The relevant personality traits included a higher tendency to lie, higher levels of emotional reactivity, and a negative attitude towards one’s own behaviour. Based on the results, a recommendation is given to teachers working with children with behavioural difficulties, to aid prevention and render psychological counselling.
This is a review study of theoretical frameworks and research findings concerning the relationship between marital conflict and children’s response. The main focus is on understanding the mechanisms connecting marital conflict to child adjustment. Two main theoretical models are discussed, namely, Cognitive-Contextual Framework by Grych and Fincham (1990) and Emotional Security Hypothesis by Davies and Cummings (1994). The analysis shows that marital conflicts are associated with a wide range of children’s adjustment problems. Parental destructive conflict patterns are associated with children’s behavioral problems, whereas positive emotionality and constructive conflict resolution lead to children’s positive or even neutral reactions to marital problems. Results are presented on how useful psychoeducational programs are for parents that prevent negative marital conflict effects on children.
Student perceptions of injustice in the classroom can evoke destructive behavior, resistance, deception, aggression, and conflict escalation. Our study explores student experiences of unjust teacher behavior in educational settings. Students (N=99) were asked to remember a conflict they experienced during their studies. The conflict descriptions (N=78) were analysed and grouped according the type of perceived injustice (distributive, procedural, interactional) and 22 issues of unfair behaviour (Mikula et al., 1990). Our study revealed that perceived unfair grading, power demonstrations, and accusation were the most important predictors of teacher-student conflicts. Moreover students reported they experienced interactional injustice more frequently than they experienced distributive or procedural injustice.
My research aim was to analyse sibling relational conflicts perceived by adult sisters and selected conflict determinants. The study also considered the discriminating significance of the sibling relational conflict intensity for experiencing mental wellbeing. The study included 240 adult women, coming from the Łódź district (M=41.94 SD=15.71). The following research instruments were applied: Adult Sibling Relationship Questionnaire (ASRQ) by C. Stocker et al. (1997) in its – adapted form by K. Walęcka-Matyja (2014), and Mental Health Continuum-Short Form by C.L.M. Keyes (2008) as adapted by D. Karaś et al. (2014). The research results allowed us to conclude about ambivalent kinds of bonds between siblings in adulthood, clearly indicating variation in the relational conflicts depending on the examined sisters’ ages. However, the study did not confirm the significance of gender constellation for experiencing general wellbeing by the examined women. It did verify the hypothesis that there is a significant role for age-level psychological well-being.
Our study tests the relationships between the anorexia readiness syndrome (ARS) and the sense of body boundaries as well as sensitivity to breaches of self boundaries. Conducted among 120 young females aged 18–24, the study was based on three questionnaires: the Eating Attitudes Questionnaire, the Sense of Body Boundaries Questionnaire, and the Self Boundaries Sensitivity Scale. Two groups were used for comparative analyses, each consisting of 30 participants with either high or low ARS intensity. The results showed high-ARS intensity individuals to have a weaker body boundary sense, a weaker sense of being separate from the environment, and a stronger sense of their bodies’ permeability boundaries, as well as being overly-sensitive to breaches in their social self boundaries. The groups showed no significant differences with respect to sensitivity to breaches in their bodily and spatial-symbolic selves.
Barbara Kożusznik, Anita Pollak, Dominik Adamek and Damian Grabowski
Our article presents work on the development and validation of Influence Regulation and Deinfluentization Scale (DEI-beh). Reviewing concepts regarding its influence constitutes an introduction to the original deinfluentization concept coined by Barbara Kożusznik. The author’s theory has provided the basis for creating a diagnostic tool. The elaborated DEI-beh method consists in evaluating conditions which determine managerial effectiveness and shape reciprocal influences among team members. Our article describes this tool’s creation and its validation procedure. Positive relationships between DEI-beh’s individual dimensions and temperament characteristics, defined in Pavlov’s concept (1952), and selected personality traits, proposed in the Five-Factor Model Personality by Costa and McCrae (1992), confirm the tool’s external validity.