Emilija Sandevska, Daniela Pop Gjorcheva, Marija Vavlukis, Aleksandar Sandevski, Irena Kafedziska, Ljubinka Krstik-Damjanovska, Venjamin Majstorov, Sasha Jovanovska-Perchinkova, Filip Guchev and Nela Kostova
Introduction: Atherosclerosis in young and premenopausal women with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is frequent, premature and progressive. Although asymptomatic or with atypical clinical presentation, the patients are at high risk of cardiac events. Aim of this study is to estimate the risk profile for atherogenesis and the prevalence of myocardial perfusion abnormalities with 99mTc myocardial perfusion scintigraphy (MPS) in young and premenopausal women.
Material and methods: Sixty female patients, aged 30-72 years (divided into two subgroups - patients under 45 years of age and patients over 45 years), diagnosed with SLE for over of 5 years, in active phase of the disease were analyzed for disease activity scores (SLEDAI), the immunologic status of the disease (ANA and a-DNA antibodies in the serum), procoagulant tendency (antiphospholipid antibodies-APhL and lupus-anticoagulant-LAC), the activity of the inflammatory process (hsCRP), the anti-SLE therapeutic approach and the presence of traditional risk factors for atherosclerosis (BMI, smoking, hypertension, hyperlipidemia, diabetes, and familial history for the CAD). Using one-day Dipyridamol – Rest 99mTc SPECT Gated MPS SPECT the extent, severity and reversibility of myocardial perfusion abnormalities were estimated, along with summed scores at stress, rest and summed difference scores and left ventricle volumes and ejection fraction.
Results: Abnormal MPS SPECT were detected in 27/60 or in 45% of patients, with one vessel affection of 66.7% (18/27pts) of LAD and 14.8% (4/27pts) o RCA and with two vessel disease of LAD/RCA in 2/27 pts (7.4%) and LAD/Cx in 3/27pts (11.1%). Myocardial perfusion abnormalities were equally prevalent in subgroups of patients younger than 45 years (44,4%) and in patients older than 45 years (45.5%) (ns). The subgroups did not differ significantly concerning the extent of perfusion abnormalities (9,8±3.2% of LV myocardial mass vs. 9,8±7.1%,ns), their severity (with predominance of mild perfusion defects, 48,6% vs. 51,3%,ns) and reversibility (reversible in 41.3% and 58.6%, ns). The differences between the summed scores of severity and the extent of ischemia in the two subgroups were statistically nonsignificant. Younger patients had significantly higher end-diastolic, end-systolic and stroke volumes during stress and rest conditions, compared to older patients (p<0,01) although there were no differences in systolic function, which was not affected in either of the groups as expressed threw ejection fraction.
Although nonsignificant, younger patients had higher values of hsCRP and higher procoagulant activity (positive aPhL, LAC) while they were with more active disease activity, with higher SLEDAI score compared to older patients (p=0.028). Higher SLEDAI score and LV volumes, especially EDV at stress were identified as predictor of abnormal MPS in younger groups and more aggressive multidrug anti SLE treatment as predictor of normal MPS.
Conclusion: The prevalence and characteristics of myocardial perfusion abnormalities in young SLE are equal as the same in older SLE patients, which indicates the presence of premature, accelerated atherosclerosis in young cohort of patients with SLE. Younger SLE patients with pure disease control (higher SLEDAI score, less aggressive treatment, high hsCRP values and pronounced procoagulant tendency) should undergo screening for myocardial perfusion abnormalities s using 99mTc MIBI MPS)
Background/Aims: Regular assessment of nutritional status of dialysis patients is vital for preventing malnutrition and protein energy wasting. The aim of this clinical study was to analyze dietary intake of dialysis patients and to determine if it meets their nutritional needs.
Methods: Clinical study was conducted on 30 randomly selected dialysis patients in the dialysis department of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana. Nutritional interview was conducted unannounced five times over a period of three months with the 24-hour recall method. Results were analyzed with Prodi 6.6 Expert software. Body composition was measured with bioimpedance spectroscopy.
Results: Average caloric intake of 30 patients is 14.1 ± 4.7 kcal/kg body weight per day, average protein intake is 0.61 ± 0.19 g/kg body weight per day. The average BMI (body mass index) is 27.9 ± 4.4 kg/m2, the average LTI (lean tissue index) is 12.5 ± 3.1 kg/m2, the average FTI (fat tissue index) is 14.2 ± 5.7 kg/m2 and the average phase angle is 4.2 ± 1.0. Average calorie intake and protein intake are inadequate according to the dietary recommendations for dialysis patients. Anthropometric measurements indicate sarcopenic obesity.
Conclusion: According to the aim of the study, we confirmed that caloric and protein intake of dialysis patients were inadequate according to their needs. Depending on the results of nutritional analysis and bioimpedance measurements, we have confirmed the presence of protein energy wasting among observed patients.
Marija Toleska, Biljana Kuzmanovska, Andrijan Kartalov, Mirjana Shosholcheva, Jasminka Nancheva, Aleksandar Dimitrovski and Natasha Toleska
Opioid free anesthesia (OFA) is deffined as anaesthesiological technique where opioids are not used in the intraoperative period (systemic, neuroaxial or intracavitary). Anaphylaxis caused by opioids (fentanyl) is very rare, and the reaction is presented with hypotension and urticaria. When we have proven allergy to fentanyl, patients’ refusal of placing epidural catheter and refusal of receiving bilateral ultrasound guided transversus abdominis plane block (USG TAPB), we must think of using multimodal nonopioide analgesia. The concept of multimodal balanced analgesia is consisted of giving different analgesic drugs in purpose to change the pathophysiological process which is included in nociception, in way to receive more effective intraoperative analgesia with less adverse effects. This is a case report of a 60-year-old male patient scheduled for laparotomic hemicolectomy, who previously had proven allergy to fentanyl. We have decided to give him an opioid free anaesthesia. Before the induction to anaesthesia, the patient would receive dexamethasone (dexasone) 0.1 mg/kg and paracetamol 1 gr intravenously. The patient was induced into general endotracheal anesthesia according to a standardized protocol, with midazolam 0.04 mg/kg, lidocaine hydrochloride 1 mg/kg, propofol 2 mg/kg and rocuronium bromide 0.6 mg/kg. Anaesthesia was maintained by using sevoflurane MAC 1 in order to maintain mean arterial pressure (MAP) with a value of +/- 20% of the original value. After tracheal intubation, the patient had received ketamine hydrochloride 0.5 mg/kg (or 50 mg ketamine) in bolus intravenously and a continuous intravenous infusion with lidocaine hydrochloride (lidocaine) 2 mg/kg/hr and magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) 1,5 gr/hr. At the end of surgery the continuous intravenous infusion with lidocaine and magnesium sulfate was stopped while the abdominal wall was closed and 2.5 g of metamizole (novalgetol) was given intravenously. VAS score 2 hours after surgery was 6/10 and 1 gr of paracetamol was given and the patient was transferred to the Department. Over the next 3 days, the patient had a VAS score of 4-6/10 and only received paracetamol 3x1g and novalgetol 3x1 gr daily, every four hours.
One of the most important CF-related conditions is the bone disease, which is nowadays acknowledged as a significant clinical complication of CF. Imbalance between bone formation and degradation in cystic fibrosis (CF) has become an important issue for developing osteopenia. The aim of the study was to assess bone formation and resorption process with bone markers in children with cystic fibrosis (CF). Materials and methods: The study included 35 clinically stable children with CF who regularly attended the Cystic fibrosis center at the University Pediatric Clinic in Skopje, R. Macedonia. The control group was presented with 21 healthy children at the same age. Serum osteocalcin (OC), β cross laps, 25OHD and PTH were determined by ELISA assays in the CF group (mean age 8.25±SD1.9 y.) and in age-match controls (7.5±1.9 y.). Results: Vitamin D in the CF group was (23.83±10.9 ng/ml versus 25.6±11.53 in the control group, p=0.57), OC (70.88±34.24 ng/ml v.100.02±47.98, p=0.01) βcrosslaps (1.35±0.72 ng/ml v.1.54±0.73, p=0.37) and PTH (37.39±25.5 pg/ml v. 36.76±25.73, p=0.92). In the study, we did not find a significant difference for 25OHD between CF and healthy controls. OC in children with CF correlates significantly with the control and indicates a decreased formation rate whereas resorption rate is normal. Conclusion: Our results suggest that bone turnover in CF is impaired in childhood. Serum markers for bone formation can be used for predicting osteopenia in children with CF.
Marija Dimzova, Irena Kondova-Topuzovska, Zvonko Milenkovic, Magdalena Gaseva, Viktorija Chaloska-Ivanova, Vladimir Serafimoski and Nikola Orovcanec
The assessment of liver fibrosis in patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB) is of great importance in evaluating the phases of chronic hepatitis B viral infection, prompt administration of antiviral therapy, prevention of disease progression and late complications of CHB infection. Aim: to investigate the clinical significance of quantitative HBs antigen as a predictor for liver fibrosis in patients with HBe antigen negative chronic hepatitis B and inactive carriers. Material and Methods: the study included 44 treatment naïve patients with chronic hepatitis B, divided into two groups, HBeAg negative chronic HBV infection or inactive carriers (IC) and HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B patients. All patients underwent laboratory, serologic testing, ultrasound and transient elastography (TE). In both patient groups, quantitative HBs antigen (HBsQ), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), hepatitis B virus deoxyribonucleic acid (HBV DNA) and liver fibrosis were analyzed. Results: The value of HBsQ is significantly higher in patients with HBeAg negative CHB 2477.02±4535.44 IU/ml than in the IC group 8791±11891 IU/ml; Z=3.32, p<0.001 (p=0.0009). In IC patients, 1 (4.76%) had fibrosis and 20 (95.24%)) did not have fibrosis. Out of 23 patients with HBeAg negative chronic hepatitis B, 8 (34.78%) had fibrosis and 15 (65.22%) did not have fibrosis. Patients with HBeAg negative hepatitis B had significantly higher liver fibrosis than IC; Fisher Exact Test p<0.05 (p=0.02). The increase of HBsQ for one single unit (IU/ml) does not have predictive value for fibrosis (Ext (B) =1.00), 95% C.I. for EXP (B): 1.00-1.00 / p>0.05. Conclusion: Quantitative hepatitis B surface antigen has intermediate weak statistically insignificant prediction for liver fibrosis R=0.25 (p<0.10).
Nada Pop-Jordanova, Olivera Sarakinova and Sofija Loleska
The ability to adapt to stress and adversity is a central facet of human development. Coping can be defined as a set of cognitive and affective actions that arise in response to a particular disquiet.
The aim of this research was to evaluate coping patterns used to mediate anxiety and stress level in two groups of patients: orthodontic and dental.
Psychometric instruments applied in the research are: Sarason’s anxiety questionnaire, Stress-test for children, as well as A-Cope questionnaire.
Obtained scores confirmed important level of anxiety, and moderate stress level. It was shown that coping mechanisms used for moderate stress and anxiety were productive and influenced the scores for the stress level and anxiety to be diminished.
As far as our knowledge is concerned, this is the first study for coping styles in children in our country.
H. K. Aggarwal, Deepak Jain, Pulkit Chhabra and R. K. Yadav
Background: Osteoporosis is highly prevalent in CKD patients and is characterized by low bone mass leading to decreased bone strength. It is associated with an increased risk of fracture, thus increasing morbidity and mortality. Bisphosphonate administration decreases fracture risk in postmenopausal females with osteoporosis. There are limited studies showing effects of short term alendronate administration on BMD in predialysis osteoporotic patients with CKD.
Methods: This study was conducted on fifty adult patients with chronic kidney disease. Patients were divided into two groups. Group A consisted of seventeen patients with CKD stage 3 (eGFR 45-30 ml/min/1.73m2) and Group B comprised thirty three patients with CKD stage 4 (eGFR 30-15 ml/min/1.73m2). The study included male patients between age 18-75 years and premenopausal non pregnant females older than 18 years of age. All the patients were osteoporotic having T score < −2.5 on DEXA scan. The patients were administered 70 mg alendronate tablet once a week for 6 weeks. Renal parameters, parathyroid hormone, calcium, phosphorous and alkaline phosphatase levels were assayed at baseline for 6 months. Serum (iPTH) level (pg/ml) was measured by chemiluminescent immune assay (CLIA) method and serum 25 Hydroxy Vitamin D level (ng/ml) was measured by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) method. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured at baseline for 6 months, by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry at lumbar spine and neck of femur and lowest values were included. The results were obtained for T score, Z score and bone mineral density (g/cm2).
Results: The BMD, T score and Z score increased in both groups after 6 months with a statistically significant difference in the treatment group. In Group A, T score, Z score and BMD (g/cm2) increased from −2.60±0.086, −2.13±0.28, and 0.80±0.008 at baseline to −2.57±0.097, −2.11±0.26 and 0.81±0.008 after six months. In Group B, the T score, Z score and BMD (g/cm2) increased from −3.17±0.24, −2.82±0.33 and 0.738±0.03 to −3.16±0.25, −2.66±0.95 and 0.743±0.03 after six months with a statistically significant difference. eGFR decreased in both groups but the difference was statistically non-significant (P>0.05). The serum iPTH levels increased after 6 months in both groups with a statistically insignificant difference. There was an increase in serum calcium and decrease in serum phosphate levels after six months, however the difference was statistically insignificant (p>0.05). The SAP values decreased in both groups after six months with a statistically insignificant difference. The main side-effect in the alendronate group was the occurrence of gastroesophageal reflux symptoms in two subjects.
Conclusion: Low-dose alendronate, administered for a limited duration, appears to be well tolerated in CKD patients. The BMD increased in both groups suggesting a bone-preserving effect of alendronate.
Marija Toleska, Andrijan Kartalov, Biljana Kuzmanovska, Milcho Panovski, Mirjana Shosholcheva, Aleksandar Dimitrovski, Risto Cholanchevski, Natasha Toleska and Milka Zdravkovska
Introduction: Patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy do experience postoperative pain, especially in the abdomen. Postoperative pain management remains a major challenge after laparoscopic procedures. Administration of intraperitoneal local anesthetic (IPLA) after surgery is used as a method of reducing postoperative pain. In this study, we evaluated the effect of intraperitoneal infiltration of local anesthetic (bupivacaine) for pain relief after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Material and methods: In this prospective, controlled, and randomized study were included 50 patients aged 25-60 years (35 female and 15 male), scheduled to laparoscopic cholecystectomy with ASA classification 1 and 2. Patients were classified randomly into two groups: group A, which included 25 patients who received intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine 0.5% 20 ml; and group B, which included 25 patients who didn’t receive any intraperitoneal instillation. Postoperative pain was recorded using the visual analogue scale (VAS) for 24 hours after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Results: There was no significant difference with respect to age, weight, and sex; duration of surgery; and anesthesia time. VAS scores at different time intervals were statistically significantly lower at all times in group A compared to group B. There were statistically significant differences in VAS scores between group A and group B at all postoperative time points - 1hr,4 hr,8 hr,12hr and 24hr (p < 0.00001).
Conclusion: Intraperitoneal instillation of bupivacaine provides good analgesia in the postoperative period after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.
Krsto Grozdanovski, Zvonko Milenkovikj, Ilir Demiri, Katerina Spasovska, Marija Cvetanovska, Velimir Saveski and Biljana Grozdanovska
Sepsis is defined as life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to an infection and it is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. The aim of this study is to describe epidemiology of community-acquired sepsis in the Intensive care unit (ICU) of the Macedonian tertiary care University Clinic for Infectious Diseases. A prospective observational study was conducted over a 6-year period from January, 2011 to December, 2016. All consecutive adults with community-acquired sepsis or septic shock were included in the study. Variables measured were incidence of sepsis, age, gender, comorbidities, season, source of infection, complications, interventions, severity indexes, length of stay, laboratory findings, blood cultures, 28-day and in hospital mortality. Of 1348 admissions, 277 (20.5%) had sepsis and septic shock. The most common chronic condition was heart failure (26.4%), and the most frequent site of infection was the respiratory tract (57.4%). Median Simplified Acute Physiology Score (SAPS II) was 50.0, and median Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score was 8.0. Blood cultures were positive in 22% of the cases. Gram-positive bacteria were isolated in 13% and Gram-negatives in 9.7% of patients with sepsis. The overall 28-day and in hospital mortality was 50.5% and 56.3% respectively. The presence of chronic heart failure, occurrence of ARDS, septic shock and the winter period may influence an unfavorable outcome. Mortality compared to previous years is unchanged but patients that we have been treating these last 6 years have had more severe illnesses. Better adherence to the Surviving Sepsis guidelines will reduce mortality in this group of severely ill patients.
Sanja Petrusevska Marinkovic, Irena Kondova Topuzovska, Milena Stevanovic and Ankica Anastasovska
Introduction: Parapneumonic effusions, as a complication of community-acquired pneumonia (CAP), usually have a good course, but they sometimes progress into complicated parapneumonic effusion (CPPE) and empyema, thus becoming a significant clinical problem.
Aim: To review clinical and radiological features, as well as diagnostic and therapeutic options in parapneumonic effusions.
Material and methods: The analysis included 94 patients with parapneumonic effusion hospitalized at the University Infectious Diseases Clinic in Skopje during a 4 year period. Out of 755 patients with CAP, 175 (23.18%), had parapneumonic effusion. Thoracentesis was performed in 94 (53.71%) patients, 50 patients were with uncomplicated parapneumonic effusions (UCPPE) and 44 with complicated parapneumonic effusions (CPPE).
Results: More patients (59.57%) were male; the average age was 53.82±17.5 years. The most common symptoms included: fever (91; 96.81%), cough (80; 85.11%), pleuritic chest pain (68; 72.34%), dyspnea (65; 69.15%). Alcoholism was the most common comorbidity registered in 12 (12.77%) patients. Macroscopically, effusion was yellow and clear in most cases (36; 38.29%). Localization of pleural effusion was often in the left costophrenic angle (53; 56.38%) and ultrasonographic non-septated complex. Between the two groups of effusions there was a significant difference between the ERS, WBC and CRP in serum and CRP in pleural fluid. Statistical difference existed in terms of days of hospitalization with a longer hospital stay for patients with CPPE (p <0.0001).
Conclusion: Patients with parapneumonic effusion have the symptoms of acute respiratory infection and frequent accompanying diseases. Future diagnostic and therapeutic treatment depends on pleural fluid features and imaging lung findings.