Denis Sokol, Maksim Ivanov, Andrei N. Salak, Robertas Grigalaitis, Juras Banys and Aivaras Kareiva
Magnesium-aluminum-bismuth layered double hydroxides (Mg3Al1−xBix; LDHs) were prepared using both coprecipitation and sol-gel methods. For the preparation of Mg/Al/Bi LDH by the co-precipitation method, the appropriate amounts of dissolved starting materials (Al(NO3)3 · 9H2O, Mg(NO3)2 · 6H2O and Bi(NO3)3 · 5H2O) were mixed with a solution of NaHCO3:NaOH. In the sol-gel processing, the precursor Mg–Al–Bi–O gels were synthesized using the same starting materials and ethylene glycol as complexing agent. The mixed-metal oxides obtained by subsequent heating of Mg–Al–Bi–O gels at 650 °C were reconstructed to Mg3Al1−xBix LDHs in water at 80 °C. All the synthesized products were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and dielectric measurements.
W.C. Shen, L.L. Lin, C.Y. Shen, S. Xing and Z.B. Pan
TbxHo0.9−xNd0.1(Fe0.8Co0.2)1.93/epoxy (0 ⩽ x ⩽ 0.40) composites are fabricated in the presence of a magnetic field. The structural and dynamic magnetoelastic properties are investigated as a function of both magnetic bias field Hbias and frequency f at room temperature. The composites are formed as textured orientation structure of 1–3 type with 〈1 0 0〉 preferred orientation for x ⩽ 0.10 and 〈1 1 1〉-orientation for x ⩾ 0.25. The composites generally possess insignificant eddy-current losses for frequency up to 50 kHz, and their dynamic magnetoelastic properties depend greatly on Hbias. The elastic modulus (E3H and E3B) shows a maximum negative ΔE effect, along with a maximum d33, at a relatively low Hbias ~ 80 kA/m, contributed by the maximum motion of non-180° domain-wall. The 1–3 type composite for x ⩾ 0.25 shows an enhanced magnetoelastic effect in comparison with 0 to 3 type one, which can be principally ascribed to its easy magnetization direction (EMD) towards 〈1 1 1〉 axis and the formation of 〈1 1 1〉-texture-oriented structure in the composite. These attractive dynamic magnetoelastic properties, e.g., the low magnetic anisotropy and d33,max as high as 2.0 nm/A at a low Hbias ~ 80 kA/m, along with the light rare-earth Nd element existing in insulating polymer matrix, would make it a promising magnetostrictive material system.
The present work reports the effect of Cu addition on the melting point, hardness and electrical resistivity of Sn-57 wt.% Bi eutectic solder alloy. Both binary eutectic Sn-57 wt.% Bi and ternary Sn-(57-x)Bi-xCu (x = 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7 and 1 wt.%) alloys containing various amounts of Cu were developed by melting casting route. The microstructure of the various solder alloys was analyzed using an optical microscope and a SEM. The variation in melting point, hardness and electrical resistivity of the Sn-Bi eutectic solder alloys with the addition of Cu was determined. The melting point of the eutectic Sn-Bi solder alloy was found to decrease up to the addition of 0.7 wt.% Cu. However, further addition of Cu led to an increase in the melting point of the alloy. Addition of Cu led to an increase in the hardness of the eutectic Sn-Bi solder alloy whereas the electrical resistivity of this alloy was found to increase up to the addition of 0.7 wt.% of Cu beyond which a decrease in the electrical resistivity was observed. A change in the microstructure of the solder alloy was observed when it was reheated above the melting temperature.
Naim Aslan, Necati Başman, Orhan Uzun, Mustafa Erkovan and Fahrettin Yakuphanoğlu
Diamond-like carbon (DLC) films were electrochemically deposited onto indium tin oxide (ITO) substrates using acetic acid and deionized water as electrolyte at low deposition voltages (2.4 V and 60 V). The transmittance of the films was investigated by UV spectrometry. Transmittance measurements versus wavelength revealed that the films transmit 86 % to 89 % light in visible region and band gap of the films varies between 3.87 eV and 3.89 eV. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used for structural characterization to evaluate surface morphology of the DLC films. The grain size and the surface roughness increased for the films prepared at higher deposition potential, while their measured average height decreased. The mechanical properties (hardness H and elastic modulus Er) were determined from load-displacement curves which were obtained by using nanoindentation method. Hardness and elastic modulus of the films increased as the deposition voltage of the films increased from 2.4 V to 60 V.
Md. I. Zahid, A. Malarkodi, Sreenarayanan Meera, K. Meera, K.S. Joseph Wilson and R. Mohan Kumar
Single crystal of sodium 4-hydroxybenzenesulfonate dihydrate (Na-4-HBS) was grown from an aqueous solution by slow evaporation method. Powder X-ray diffraction study was carried out to identify the lattice parameters of the crystal. FT-IR spectral analysis confirmed the existence of various functional groups in the compound. The optical transmittance, cut-off wavelength and band gap energy were estimated from the UV-Vis studies. Photoluminescence studies revealed the transition mechanism by optical excitation. The variation of dielectric properties and AC conductivity of the grown crystal with frequency was studied at different temperatures. Measurements of mechanical properties of Na-4-HBS were carried out to find the hardness of the material. The laser induced surface damage threshold and relative second harmonic generation nonlinear optical properties of the grown crystal were studied using Q-switched Nd:YAG laser.
K. Ulutas, S. Yakut, D. Bozoglu, D. Deger, M. Arslan and A. Erol
Pure GaAs and GaAs1−xBix alloys with different Bi ratios (1 %, 2.5 %, 3.5 %) fitted with silver contacts were measured with a dielectric spectroscopy device. Dielectric characterization was performed at room temperature in the frequency range of 0.1 Hz to 1 MHz. GaAs exhibits three relaxation regions corresponding to space-charge, dipolar and ionic polarizations in sequence with increasing frequency while GaAs1−xBix samples show only a broad dipolar polarization in the same frequency range. This result proves the filling of the lattice with Bi through making a new bonding reducing the influence of ionic polarization. This finding supports the previous results concerning optical properties of GaAs1−xBix, presented in the literature.
A novel reddish-orange emitting phosphor Eu-activated KLaSiO4 was synthesized by the conventional solid-state reaction at 1200 °C. The luminescence properties of KLaSiO4:Eu phosphor were investigated, and the critical concentration of the activator ion (Eu3+) was established as 0.02 mol per formula unit. Chromaticity coordinates of a typical KLa0.98SiO4:0.02Eu phosphor were x = 0.614 and y = 0.385. The phosphor exhibited reddish-orange luminescence with dominating emission at 612 nm, corresponding to 5D0 → 7F2 of Eu3+. Furthermore, the phosphor was characterized by excellent thermal stability, implying its potential use in white light emitting diodes.
Anu Dhupar, Suresh Kumar, Vandana Sharma and J.K. Sharma
In the present work, mixed structure Zn(S,O) nanoparticles have been synthesized using solution based chemical coprecipitation technique. Two different zinc sources (Zn(CH3COO)2·2H2O and ZnSO4·7H2O) and one sulfur source (CSNH2NH2) have been used as primary chemical precursors for the synthesis of the nanoparticles in the presence and absence of a capping agent (EDTA). The structural, morphological, compositional and optical properties of the nanoparticles have been analyzed using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Fourier transmission infra-red (FT-IR) and UV-Visible (UV-Vis) spectroscopy. XRD revealed the formation of mixed phases of c-ZnS, h-ZnS and h-ZnO in the synthesized nanoparticles. The surface morphology was analyzed from SEM micrographs which showed noticeable changes due to the effect of EDTA. EDX analysis confirmed the presence of zinc, sulfur and oxygen in Zn(S,O) nanoparticles. FT-IR spectra identified the presence of characteristic absorption peaks of ZnS and ZnO along with other functional group elements. The optical band gap values were found to vary from 4.16 eV to 4.40 eV for Zn(S,O) nanoparticles which are higher in comparison to the band gap values of bulk ZnS and ZnO. These higher band gap values may be attributed to the mixed structure of Zn(S,O) nanoparticles.
Crystallization of γ-glycine in the presence of selected concentration (9 g/mL) of tailor-made additive magnesium sulfate heptahydrate salt (MgSO4·7H2O) has been studied at ambient temperature by adopting slow solvent evaporation procedure. The morphological modifications of glycine crystals grown from pure aqueous solutions of glycine and from glycine solutions containing magnesium species in the amount of 0.1 g/mL to 16 g/mL have been investigated thoroughly. The crystalline nature and phase identification of the crystalline material were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and SXRD studies. NMR studies revealed the information about the molecular conformation in solution, phase changes, functional groups and chemical environment. FT-IR spectra revealed distinct difference between α and γ-glycine polymorphs in the region around 880 cm−1 to 930 cm−1. The grown γ-glycine crystal had a lower cut-off value at 200 nm and the bandgap value evaluated from the Tauc plot was found to be 5.83 eV. The marked differences between α and γ-polymorphs of glycine were also revealed by DSC thermograms. The mechanical strength of the γ-glycine crystal was studied with the help of Vickers microhardness instrument. Kurtz-powder NLO study proved the generation of second harmonics (i.e. green light emission) in the grown γ-glycine crystal and its efficiency was calculated as 1.44 times better than that of the reference material potassium dihydrogen phosphate.
Omer Kaygili, Niyazi Bulut, Tankut Ates, Ismail Ercan, Suleyman Koytepe, Turgay Seckin, Cengiz Tatar, Bayram Gunduz and Hanifi Kebiroglu
In the present study, the dopant effect of Zn on the crystal structure, thermal properties and morphology of magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel (MAS) structure was investigated. A pure and two Zn-containing MASs (e.g. MgAl1.93Zn0.07O4 and MgAl1.86Zn0.14O4) were synthesized for this purpose via a wet chemical method, and the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the crystal structure, thermal properties and morphology of the MAS system change with the increase in the amount of Zn. MgO phase formation was observed. The values of the lattice parameter, unit cell volume and crystallite size increased, and the crystallinity percentage decreased. The morphology was also affected by adding of Zn.