Immune reconstitution inflammatory syndrome (IRIS), a common complication of AIDS, is further complicated by tuberculosis. Its clinical symptoms lack specificity but can be evaluated using diagnostic imaging. High-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) is useful in evaluating the morphology and internal microstructure of lesions associated with the syndrome, as well as the relationship of the internal microstructure with the surrounding tissues. This paper summarizes the present state and progress of imaging research on IRIS caused by AIDS and complicated by tuberculosis.
We aimed to evaluate the combined antibacterial effects of allicin in combination with levofloxacin and ceftriaxone on Shigella isolated from the intestinal tract in vitro.
Materials and Methods
Using a checkerboard design, broth microdilution assay was used to test the effects of the compounds on the organism. We also determined the MIC of the two groups of antibacterial drugs against 30 strains of Shigella and calculated the fractional inhibitory concentration (FIC) index, to judge the combination effect.
After the combined application of allicin and ceftriaxone the MIC decreased significantly. Distribution of the FIC index was as follows: FIC ≤0.5, accounting for 10%; 0.5< FIC ≤1.0, accounting for 60%; 1 < FIC ≤2, accounting for 30%; FIC >2, percentage is zero. After combined application of allicin and levofloxacin, distribution of FIC index was as follows: FIC≤0.5, ratio is zero; 0.5< FIC ≤1, accounting for 56.7%; 1 < FIC ≤2, accounting for 43.3%; FIC >2, ratio is zero.
After the combined use of ceftriaxone, levofloxacin, and allicin, most of the tests showed synergistic effects and additive effects on Shigella, while some of them showed no correlation and no antagonistic effect.
Recent studies showed that inflammation is a critical cause for initiation and/or development of many cancers. In prostate cancer (PC), the inflammatory cells usually populate an immune-competent organ. This inflammatory organ can be involved in the initiation and progression of PC. Here, we mainly focus on the role of inflammation in the PC and progression of castration-resistant PC (CRPC). Moreover, we summarize the roles of inflammation factors (such as chemokines and cytokines) in PC and CRPC. Taken together, this review gives an insight into therapy for PC and CRPC through anti-inflammation.
Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) have a powerful immunosuppressive capacity, and they have been used to treat numerous immune diseases, such as refractory graft-versus-host disease. Nevertheless, there are conflicting clinical data. To our knowledge, MSCs from different donors do not share the same qualities and have different immunosuppressive capacities. Infused MSCs are cleared by the recipient’s immune cells or macrophages. Therefore, the MSC therapeutic strategy might be the most important factor that determines treatment success. Repeated infusions would lead to a relatively stable MSC concentration, which would benefit a sustained therapeutic effect. In this review, we focus on the quality of MSCs and the associated therapeutic strategy, as well as other potential variables affecting their utility as a cellular pharmaceutical.
Chao Meng, Na Li, Zhaoxiao Tong, Huangxin Yan and Shenxiao Min
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and tuberculosis (TB) coinfection is a serious public health problem. HIV and TB promote each other, accelerating development of HIV to acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) and heightening TB mortality. Determining interaction mechanism between HIV and Mycobacterium tuberculosis can lead to development of effective treatments. This study summarizes prevalence status of AIDS and TB coinfection and research advances concerning their interaction mechanism.
Images obtained via computer tomography perfusion (CTP) technology, a non-invasive functional imaging method, can reflect the hemodynamic status and function of the liver. Images obtained via CTP imaging technology can be quantitatively analyzed. The fundamentals, examination, and analysis of CTP images are reviewed in this paper. In addition, this paper provides a review of normal liver CTP imaging, CTP research status, and future developments in the CTP imaging of hepatitis and liver cirrhosis.
Objective: The objective of this work is to search for a novel method to explore the disrupted pathways associated with periodontitis (PD) based on the network level.
Methods: Firstly, the differential expression genes (DEGs) between PD patients and cognitively normal subjects were inferred based on LIMMA package. Then, the protein-protein interactions (PPI) in each pathway were explored by Empirical Bayesian (EB) co-expression program. Specifically, we determined the 100th weight value as the threshold value of the disrupted pathways of PPI by constructing the randomly model and confirmed the weight value of each pathway. Meanwhile, we dissected the disrupted pathways under the weight value > the threshold value. Pathways enrichment analyses of DEGs were carried out based on Expression Analysis Systematic Explored (EASE) test. Finally, the better method was selected based on the more rich and significant obtained pathways by comparing the two methods.
Results: After the calculation of LIMMA package, we estimated 524 DEGs in all. Then we determined 0.115222 as the threshold value of the disrupted pathways of PPI. When the weight value>0.115222, there were 258 disrupted pathways of PPI enriched in. Additionally, we observed those 524 DEGs that were enriched in 4 pathways under EASE=0.1.
Conclusion: We proposed a novel network method inferring the disrupted pathway for PD. The disrupted pathways might be underlying biomarkers for treatment associated with PD.
The deterioration of vestibular function is a side effect of numerous diseases of the inner ear. Vertigo is the most common symptom of vestibular dysfunction. Vestibule-suppressing drugs can control symptoms but impede the rehabilitation of vestibular function. Surgical treatment can effectively resolve vestibular dysfunction associated with some progressive diseases, including tumors. However, unilateral vestibular function remains permanently damaged after surgery, causing problems like vertigo and imbalance. To enhance the understanding of Vestibular rehabilitation therapy, this paper presents a summary of the progress in research on Vestibular rehabilitation therapy for patients with vestibular dysfunction.