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Abstract

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital defect in which the aortic valve has two rather than three leaflets. In many patients valve function may be normal but valve decompensation may occur due to other associated congenital abnormalities and secondary valve and aortic complications. Decompensation manifests as stenosis or regurgitation and thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. Cystic medial necrosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of BAV. Prevalence of BAV is estimated at 0.5-2.0%. In children, 70-85% of stenotic aortic valves are bicuspid, compared to at least 50% in adults. BAV has autosomal dominant inheritance. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

Cavernous cerebral malformations (CCM) are vascular malformations of the brain and spinal cord. CCM affect up to 0.5% of the general population, predisposing to headaches, seizures, cerebral hemorrhage and focal neurological deficit. CCM may be familial or sporadic. Familial forms have autosomal dominant inheritance. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is an inherited narrowing of the proximal descending thoracic aorta. Histological features include localized medial thickening and infolding with superimposed neointimal tissue. CoA is diagnosed by detection of a murmur or hypertension during routine examination. Typical clinical features are delayed or absent femoral pulses and difference in blood pressure between the arm and legs. These symptoms may appear in the first weeks of life or after the neonatal period. CoA accounts for 4-6% of all congenital heart defects and has a reported prevalence of about 4 per 10,000 live births. It is more common in males than females (59% vs 41%). This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

Cystic hygroma (CH) is characterized by abnormal accumulation of fluid in the region of the fetal neck and is a major anomaly associated with aneuploidy. Morphologically characterized by failure of the lymphatic system to communicate with the venous system in the neck, the clinical manifestations of CH depend on its size and location. Incidence is estimated at one case per 6000-16,000 live births. CH has autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

Ebstein anomaly (EA) is a rare congenital tricuspid valve malformation, characterized by downward displacement of the septal leaflet and an atrialized right ventricle. About 80% of cases of EA are non-syndromic; in the other 20%, the anomaly is associated with a chromosomal or Mendelian syndrome. The prevalence of EA is estimated at about 1 per 20,000 live births, and accounts for less than 1% of all congenital heart defects. EA has autosomal dominant inheritance. Likely causative genes are: NKX2-5, MYH7 and TPM1. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, potential risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

Emberger Syndrome (ES) is a very rare genetic disorder associated with primary lymphedema, myelodysplasia and immunodeficiency. The syndrome has autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Sporadic cases caused by de novo germinal mutations in the GATA2 gene have also been described. We developed the test protocol on the basis of the latest research findings and diagnostic protocols on lymphatic malformation in ES. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

Hennekam Syndrome (HS) is a combination of congenital lymphatic malformation, lymphangiectasia and other disorders. It is a very rare disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. We developed the test protocol “Hennekam Syndrome” on the basis of the latest research findings and diagnostic protocols on lymphatic malformation in HS. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant vascular dysplasia characterized by telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations. These lesions cause bleeding, particularly in the nose, gastrointestinal tract and brain. HHT has incomplete penetrance, variable expressivity and genetic heterogeneity. De novo mutations associated with the onset of sporadic HHT have been reported. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

Large-caliber vessels are those with a diameter of 10 mm or more. Most aneurysms remain asymptomatic until they expand or rupture. Aortic aneurysms are of special interest for physicians and scientists because of their prevalence. Aortic aneurysms and dissections account for 1-2% of all deaths in western countries. Expansion and rupture of vascular aneurysms show a strong correlation with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, sex and age. Heritability estimates have been as high as 70%. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Abstract

Lymphatic malformations (LMs) show phenotypic variability, as well as clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Inheritance is autosomal dominant, recessive or X-linked and major genes involved in predisposition for LMs are continuously being discovered. The literature also indicates that somatic mutations play an important role in the development of LMs. In fact, activating somatic mutations in PIK3CA have been reported in lymphatic endothelial cells obtained from patients with different kinds of LM. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.