Emmanuel E. Adiotomre, Innocent O. Ejeh and Edwin O. Adaikpoh
Geochemical analysis of fluvial sediments on the banks of River Ero using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry illustrates their maturity, provenance and tectonic setting. The analysed sediment samples show low SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of 2.92-2.99 (units FL_A, FL_B and FL_E) and high SiO2/Al2O3 ratios of 4.064-4.852 (units FL_C, FL_D, FL_F and FL_G). Sediments were geochemically classified as shales (units FL_A, FL_B and FL_E) and greywackes (units FL_C, FL_D, FL_F and FL_G). Variability in sediment maturity (FL_F > FL_G >FL_C >FL_D >FL_A > FL_B > FL_E) parallels a decreasing order in the ratios of SiO2/Al2O3 and K2O/Al2O3, as well as the proportion of quartz grains and matrix components. Evidence from Al2O3/TiO2, K2O, Rb, La/Co, Th/Co, Cr/ Th, Th/Cr, La/Th-Hf, Th-Hf-Co and rare earth element contents of sediment samples suggest felsic protoliths of upper continental crust in a passive margin tectonic setting. An insignificant contribution of mafic components from the source is, however, inferred based on the Ni and Cr contents of the sediment samples. Combined Eu anomalies <0.85 and (Gd/Yb)n ratios <2.0 (1.53- 1.82, average 1.65) suggest post-Archean protoliths.
Simon Malej, Milan Terčelj, Iztok Peruš and Goran Kugler
In this study, conditional average estimator neural networks (CAE NNs) were used for an analysis of the common influences of the cooling mode in relation to the ram speed, extrusion ratio, casting speed and casting temperature on the yield strength and the elongation of an extruded profile made from aluminium alloy (AA)6082. The obtained results from the analysis revealed very complex relationships between these parameters. In order to maximise the values for the yield strength and the elongation, the values for the ram speed, extrusion ratio, casting speed and casting temperature should be optimised in relation to the mode of cooling.
In Slovenia, there is widespread use of structural drilling along with classical core drilling. Recently, however, the need has arisen for a highly effective core drilling method with the aid of which high-quality core might be obtained. In order to achieve this aim, one among several Slovenian companies dealing with geological surveying has decided to implement structural drilling using a high-frequency drilling method. The following article presents the theoretical foundations for such a high-frequency method, as well as the manner of its implementation. In the final part of the article, a practical comparison between the conventional and the high-frequency core drilling methods is also provided.
Very low frequency (VLF) was used to assess variations in overburden composition, bedrock lithology and the concealed basement structures within the bedrock of Owena Dam in Igbara-Oke of the Precambrian Basement Complex of Southwestern Nigeria. Five VLF-electromagnetic (EM) traverses were occupied at 5 m intervals. The VLF normal and filtered real component anomalies identify major geological interfaces suspected to be faults/fractured zones. The points of crossover between the real and imaginary components delineate the fractured zones, which were identified as areas of possible seepage (piping and sloughing). The internal erosion (permeability) of soil mass eventually leads to the formation of an open conduit in the soil, which may lead to failure of the embankment/dam. The fractured zones are suspected to be present at all traverses. In total, 21 fractured zones were identified along the dam embankment, with the deepest occurrence at Traverse 5. These seepage zones cause heterogeneity in the subsurface composition, which could lead to dam failure. The result of the study suggests that VLF is an adequate method of monitoring seepages in embankment dams.
Karmen Fifer Bizjak, Aljoša Šajna, Katja Slanc and Friderik Knez
The railway infrastructure is a very important component of the world’s total transportation network. Investment in its construction and maintenance is significant on a global scale. Previously published life cycle assessment (LCA) studies performed on road and rail systems very seldom included infrastructures in detail, mainly choosing to focus on vehicle manufacturing and fuel consumption. This article presents results from an environmental study for railway steel bridge materials for the demonstration case of the Buna Bridge in Croatia. The goal of these analyses was to compare two different types of remediation works for railway bridges with different materials and construction types. In the first part, the environmental impact of the classical concrete bridge construction was calculated, whereas in the second one, an alternative new solution, namely, the strengthening of the old steel bridge with ultra-high-performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) deck, was studied. The results of the LCA show that the new solution with UHPFRC deck gives much better environmental performance. Up to now, results of LCA of railway open lines, railway bridges and tunnels have been published, but detailed analyses of the new solution with UHPFRC deck above the old bridge have not previously been performed.
Oluwaseun T. Olurin, Saheed A. Ganiyu, Olaide S. Hammed and Taiwo J. Aluko
This study presents the results of spectral analysis of magnetic data over Abeokuta area, Southwestern Nigeria, using fast Fourier transform (FFT) in Microsoft Excel. The study deals with the quantitative interpretation of airborne magnetic data (Sheet No. 260), which was conducted by the Nigerian Geological Survey Agency in 2009. In order to minimise aliasing error, the aeromagnetic data was gridded at spacing of 1 km. Spectral analysis technique was used to estimate the magnetic basement depth distributed at two levels. The result of the interpretation shows that the magnetic sources are mainly distributed at two levels. The shallow sources (minimum depth) range in depth from 0.103 to 0.278 km below ground level and are inferred to be due to intrusions within the region. The deeper sources (maximum depth) range in depth from 2.739 to 3.325 km below ground and are attributed to the underlying basement.
Bioretention basins/rain garden is a very suitable low-impact development (LID) practice for storm water management around the globe. By using this practice in urban areas, flash flooding problems can be decreased and the environment of an area can be improved. The concept of bioretention was introduced a few decades ago and has been proven to be the best management practice (BMP) for storm water in urban areas. Due to urbanisation, natural surface areas are converted into hard surfaces such as roads, through which water cannot infiltrate into the ground. Due to this, infiltration decreases and surface run-off increases, which causes depletion of ground water continuously. In this study, we mainly explain the bioretention concept and its function as derived from different studies. This review includes different scientists’ results for the performance of the bioretention system at different locations. A summary of the research findings by different scientists on the performance of bioretention systems is also provided, including the hydrologic and water quality performances. Finally, future work necessary to enhance the performance and widespread use of bioretention systems is also explained.
Tjaša Kanduč, Simon Zavšek, Sergej Jamnikar and Timotej Verbovšek
Geochemical and isotopic monitoring of coalbed gases at the excavation fields of mining areas in Velenje Coal Basin, Slovenia, has been ongoing since the year 2000 with the aim of obtaining better insights into the distribution and origin of coalbed gases. Results from the mining areas Pesje and Preloge (active excavation fields) are presented here from the year 2000 up to the present. Composition and origin of coalbed gases were determined using mass spectrometry at the Jožef Stefan Institute. From a larger database of geochemical samples, 119 samples were used for analysis and spatial presentation in a geographical information system (GIS) environment. We have used geochemical (CH4, CO2 and N2) and isotopic (δ13CCO2 and δ13CCH4) tracers for geochemical and isotopic characterisation of coalbed gases from the active excavation fields. Concentrations of CO2 and the carbon dioxide–methane indices in the southern part of the basin are higher than in the northern part of the basin due to the vicinity of the active Šoštanj Fault. The value of δ13CCH4 at the active excavation field indicates a bacterial origin, with values greater than –50‰, and only some boreholes show elevated δ13CCH4 quantities as a consequence of the CO2 reduction process in Velenje Coal Basin. The value of δ13CCO2 indicates the bacterial and endogenic origin of carbon.
This study presents an innovative approach for determining the unconfined yield strength σc during the excavation of coal from the earth’s crust by using an equipment that was developed for measuring the mechanical properties of bulk materials stored in silos. Highly productive excavation of coal with a hanging wall top caving leads to intensive deformations in the hanging wall and the broken coal can be considered as bulk material. In this research, the shear tester Johanson Hang-Up Indicizer was used to measure the unconfined yield strength of the tested samples, even though such a tester cannot produce stress-strain conditions similar to those occurring during the excavation. An attempt was made to estimate the real unconfined yield strength of broken coal deep under the surface through a combination of measured data and extrapolation.
The precise and accurate determination of sulphate levels in cement is of utmost importance due to the potential occurrence of internal sulphate attack in concrete, which affects the latter’s durability, and thus, also the safety of concrete constructions. The estimated measurement uncertainty provides a level of confidence in the experimental results, and enables the comparison of data, both between different laboratories and between different methods. This paper presents an alternative approach to the estimation of measurement uncertainty in the determination of sulphate in cement, based on the use of proficiency testing data. The calculations used in this procedure refer to the estimation of reproducibility within-laboratory component of the analysis of control samples, as well as of the bias component of sulphate content data for different types of Portland cement derived from several proficiency testing trials.