In Recife, Brazil, population growth and development of buildings in the Central region generated an increase of almost 70% in the last 20 years due to the large number of companies that have been allocated in the city generating an increase in the local economy and the significant population increase, creating huge heat islands. Due to this, a new technology has been implemented in the real estate market: The green roofs, a technology of sustainable coverage that allows implantation of soil and vegetation in a waterproofed layer on the constructions. The benefits of this technology include the reduction of temperature by consumption of CO2, a good option for storing rainwater for nonpotable purposes and the possibility of growing organic vegetable gardens for own consumption or sale, generating a new form of income. The aim of the research is to evaluate the factors that interfere with the introduction of sustainable coverage technology of green roofs in the present siting of the city. In this article, the factors that interfere with the implementation of green roof technology in the present siting of the city will be evaluated, focusing on the analysis of internal and external influencing factor. Comparison, historical, statistical data analysis, induction, logical access methods and external and internal influencing factor analysis were used in the research besides the practical development of arguments and graphical representation of research results.
The meaning of the term “green city” today is more related to sustainability rather than to vegetation or greenery. Therefore, the aim of this research is not to develop another complex green index, but simply to calculate and compare a share of greenery among functional urban areas of three Baltic capitals. Comparison was done using GIS tools and analysing Urban Atlas, CORINE and degree of soil sealing datasets. Although the results of Urban Atlas and CORINE datasets showed slight disagreement, it has been discovered that Tallinn has the highest share of greenery, Vilnius is in the middle and Riga is the last. Analysis of 1990, 2000, 2006 and 2012 CORINE datasets showed the highest relative decrease of greenery in Riga (2.53 %) over time, Tallinn was the second (1.44 %) and the smallest decrease (0.53 %) was in Vilnius. The analysis of degree of soil sealing demonstrated the highest relative share of pervious surfaces in Tallinn (95.5 %) and the smallest share in Vilnius (92.1 %), therefore this research nominates Tallinn as the greenest (literally) capital of the Baltic States.
Jānis Vanags, Ineta Geipele, Auseklis Sarkans and Didzis Usenieks
Housing market participants constantly face the housing heterogeneity - the technical and socio-economic differences of dwellings in a certain populated area. Housing heterogeneity often complicates the managerial decision making related to housing transactions, identification and objective evaluation of the quantitative and qualitative aspects of transactions. Housing heterogeneity is an objective phenomenon that implies housing uniqueness - housing distinguishing characteristics divided into specific and interconnected groups within the framework of the research. Most of these differences can be noticed by each market participant, but some of them can be identified only by experienced and professionally trained market participants. Theory and practice have demonstrated that the constituent groups of heterogeneity influence each other and take part in the formation of market value and transaction price of housing units. The increased housing construction intensity, the continuous modernisation of construction technologies and the diversification of building materials used in housing construction, as well as restriction of the building plot of land change the quantitative and qualitative aspects of heterogeneity dimensions. This poses considerable challenges to market participants in the managerial decision making process related to housing transactions. Research results demonstrate that the socio-economic elements of housing heterogeneity are constantly changing under the influence of the dominating factors of the external and internal environment. Therefore, nowadays, housing heterogeneity has become a major cause of information asymmetry, which means that heterogeneity is inherent in the formation of socio-economic market barriers in the housing market.
Leonora Haliti Rudhani, Hysen Ismajli and Albulena Mustafa
Responding to globalization of the international business environment the companies need to draw and present reliable and comparable audited financial statements, and consequently there is a vital need to implement international financial reporting standards. Foreign investments in Kosovo as a new developing country are growing. The purpose of this paper is to consider the role of audited financial statements in encouraging foreign investment in the private sector in Kosovo. To examine this issue, we have analysed three determinant factors in presenting financial statements to the foreign investors: auditor’s report, auditor reputation and relevance of auditor’s findings. The results of this study indicate that these variables have a positive effect on promotion of foreign investment. These results also revealed that audited financial statements are very important for Kosovo companies in order to ensure an equal worldwide treatment.
Iveta Stāmure, Jānis Kaminskis and Kamil Kowalczyk
In Latvia, the issues of the Real Estate Cadastre are arranged; however, it should be noted that part of the issues affecting the Baltic Sea, i.e., the issues of the Marine Cadastre, are not covered by the Real Estate Cadastre. The status of the Baltic coastline is an essential element of infrastructure for all countries around the Baltic Sea. This baseline serves as the key element or reference for the Marine Cadastre. In place-to-place, this line is the dynamic element as it is possible to monitor location with advanced and progressive technologies. The issues of the Marine Cadastre are on the agenda in many EU countries, and several internаtional projects are being reаlized. Land parcels from the sea are registered and maintained in the Cadastre Information System in Latvia. Starting from 2017, the State Land Service of Latvia has started to register coastal areas two kilometres in width from the Baltic Sea baseline. Cadastral information about the Marine Cadastre is being used for spatial planning and taxation.
The process of privatization in our country was characterized and unfortunately is still characterized by very important difficulties. The purpose of the research is to analyze the issues of real estate valuation in the process of privatization. In Georgia, the privatization process began after dissolution of the Soviet system. It should be noted that the process of privatization is of particular importance in terms of activation of investment activities in the country. In this regard, privatization can be considered one of the essential and most important incentives for attracting investments by the state. Currently, thousands of enterprises have already been privatized, but there are still quite many stateowned production facilities and property. Determination of the market value of the items of state-owned property is especially important when selling them at auctions or on competitive basis. In addition, one of the causes for incompetent privatization of the state-owned property at the early stage is disregard of the institute of appraisers of movable and immovable property, who did not participate in determining the market value of the property and in the privatization process. The information assessment, analysis, comparison and generalization, as well as systematic, quantitative, qualitative and logical generalization methods are used in the article.
Jānis Viesturs, Iveta Puķīte, Jānis Vanags and Irakli Nikuradze
There exists sharp competition amongst nations regarding the increasing foreign investments; therefore, nations are willing to offer foreign investors and their families some type of political bonus, such as temporary residence permit, permanent residence permit, or even citizenship. The simplest way to entice investors is to offer them and their family members temporary residence permits in exchange for investments - simply by purchasing real property (via the so-called “Golden Visa” program). Such a program was launched in Latvia in 2010; however, significant limitations were placed on it in 2014. This research (1) compares the “Golden Visa” programs in different countries in the world, (2) determines the impact of the program on the real property market of Latvia, and (3) searches for the main reason why limitations were applied to the temporary residence permit program in 2014, which resulted in a significant decrease in the international investments in Latvia (this part of the paper is based on the results of the following research: Viesturs, J., Auziņš, A., & Štaube, T. (2017). Arguments Used for Restricting International Real Property Transactions: Case Study of Latvia).
Sergey Kirsanov, Evgeny Safonov and Sandra Ramirez
The aim of the article is to reveal some aspects state regulation of natural monopoly in Russia, which are of paramount importance in economic and social life of the country. The optimal path to reforming the monopolized industries is currently a very topical question for Russia. The Russian government requires studying the foreign experience in this field and adapting it to the Russian conditions. Almost complete lack of transparency in the pricing of natural monopolies is one of the most important problems in Russia. In this connection, against the background of almost uncontrolled corruption in the country, the decision to increase tariffs for practically all services provided by monopolists, irrespective of the world prices for energy resources, causes distrust and just censures. The inefficient management of the state corporation Gazprom, a significant reduction in taxes transferred to the state budget, has not, until now, been the subject of thorough audit and critical analysis by the relevant government agencies. The Ministry of Energy does not attempt to reform the gas industry, for example, in the likeness of Scandinavian countries, where surprising results have been achieved in the operation of numerous energy suppliers. The increase of tax revenues to the country’s budget and the improvement of the quality of life of the population depend on to the scope of reforms of the industry the state will carry out based on a combination of administrative and economic control measures. Methods of investigation used: analysis, synthesis, comparative analysis.
The present scientific article is the first part of two publications, where the authors obtain results from the scientific research for municipal residential property legal aspects and housing policy, as well as risks in the maintenance of the housing stock. To ensure the fulfillment of the functions prescribed by law in relation to the provision of living space, each municipality owns a number of rental apartments. Some municipalities even build special dwellings aimed to fulfil this function. Housing management involves the implementation of a specific process prescribed by both the law and the principles of good governance. However, all management processes are subject to risks that can endanger the implementation of the entire management process. To ensure efficient and high-quality maintenance of the management process, risk assessment is required. In order to successfully implement all these activities, first of all, there is a need for a legal framework that will stipulate the obligations, responsibilities, rights of the persons involved, as well as a series of measures that determine the actions to be taken to ensure the successful maintenance of the housing stock. The aim of the article is to investigate and analyse the regulation of the rent of the legal relations of the municipal property that is used as rental apartments, the management processes of municipal residential property and their compliance with regulatory enactments, as well as to define risks that prevent the efficient and high-quality maintenance of the housing stock.