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The Effect of the Malt Grinding Degree on the pH Value and Extract Content in Beer Mash

Abstract

In recent years, a dynamic development of brewing has been observed. Increasingly, production of malt and beer takes place even in smaller industrial factories, breweries restaurants or at home. Extraction is a process applied in a variety of industries, including food production, as a way of extracting specific ingredients from their mixtures. As a result of this process, not only sugars, proteins, fats, enzymes, vitamins, colorants, fragrances and flavors, but also malt and hop extracts are being isolated. In the process of mashing, in which the malt ingredients are being extracted, many biochemical, physical and chemical changes take place. The aim of the study was to analyze the effect of the degree of fragmentation of pilsner type malt on the amount of extract obtained and the pH of the mash. It has been observed that the degree of malt fragmentation has a significant effect on the content of the extract in the mash: the more fragmented malt, the more malt extract in mash produced using the malt. It has also been found that the pH of the mash increases with the average particle size of malt.

Open access
Evaluation of Flat Fan Nozzles Operating Parameters Under Conditions of Accelerated Boundary and Destructive Wear

Abstract

Two tests were carried out to measure the standard flat fan nozzles wear during a specific period of an accelerated wear procedure. The first test aimed at getting 10% increase in the flow rate compared to the nominal flow rate, which is the threshold to replace the nozzles according to the nozzles testing standards. The second test was to wear the nozzles intensively (100 hours of accelerated wear), which represents the use of nozzles beyond the allowed threshold. The results showed that the flow rate reached 1.31 l·min−1 (equal to 10% increase) for the tested nozzles after 35 hours of the wear test. For the second test, the 10% increase of the flow rate was reached after approximately 30 hours. The wear rate reached 27.5% at the end of the test and this is 2.7 times more than the standardized threshold.

Open access
Experimental Verification of Method to Synthesize the Track Vertical Irregularities

Abstract

The paper focuses on the experimental verification of the results derived from numerical simulations, based on a model of the bogie-track system, where the vertical track irregularities are introduced in the form of a pseudorandom function. This function comes from an original method of synthesizing the vertical track irregularities, depending on the geometric quality of the track and on the velocity. To verify the method, the root mean square (RMS) of the simulated accelerations in the axles and the bogie frame against each axle is compared to the experimental accelerations within the frequency range of wavelengths of the track vertical irregularities from 3 to 120 m. The results have shown a good correlation between the simulated RMS accelerations for a low quality track and the measured RMS accelerations.

Open access
Innovative Calculation Method of the Productivity of Vibrating Screens Used in Mineral Aggregates Sorting

Abstract

In the process of preparing cement or asphalt concrete – frequently used in ways, roads and access road construction, it is necessary to sort out poly-dispersed granular mixtures from bilge deposits or quarries. The mechanical sieving performs the separation of the granules on dimensional sorts (the size of graded grains can be 1... 70 mm) by means of machines called screeners. In the case of vibrating screeners, the working body (the sieve) presents a vibratory movement that ensures a high productivity of the screening machine and a very good quality of the final products obtained. The article studies the productivity of the vibrating screen used in mineral aggregates sorting process obtained by different methods. In this regard, a pragmatic simplified formula called Pragma is proposed, a formula which was tested with good results in situ experiments done on a bi-mass vibrating screen in a pilot station.

Open access
Level and Structure of Inputs in Specialist Farms

Abstract

The objective of the paper is to determine the size of human and objectified labour in selected specialist vegetable farms. The paper covered studies carried out in the area of southern Poland in 50 organic vegetable farms. Based on the detailed studies, the size and structure of work, and energy inputs used in the production process were determined. The highest inputs of labour per a unit of the production area and 1 tonne of a product were incurred in production of Cucurbita vegetables – 1883.1 and 547.74 man-hour, while the lowest of Solanacea vegetables – 342.8 and 7.11 man-hour. From among all analysed groups of plants, the highest energy inputs were incurred in cultivation of root and onion vegetables and they were three times higher than in traditional farms. Contrary, the lowest inputs were incurred in cultivation of brassica and Solanaceae vegetables.

Open access
Modal Competition and Complementarity: Cost Optimization at End-User Level

Abstract

The paper aims to identify possible methods for balancing the allocation of transport flow on modal subsystems in order to efficiently use the infrastructures and reduce the negative effects of today’s unbalance. The aspects of intermodal competition are reviewed, considering the economic concepts regarding the substitutability of transportation services, conformation degree to the perfect competition model and the nature of cross elasticity demand.

A top-down analysis over the whole infrastructure assembly is performed. The results, under the presumption of valid work hypothesis, indicated that for further analysis the set of networks transferring material flows can be assumed as disconnected from the other networks sets transferring energy, informational and values flows.

The second part of the paper develops, for that disconnected networks, a generalized cost optimization model for multimodal transportation, where the comfort and safety are accounted. Thus, the performance of the existing algorithms based only on trip length, trip duration and energy consumption can be significantly improved. Additionally, the author proposes three new independent types of modal analysis that allow end-users and companies involved in transport organization to optimize their modal choice and the whole transport process organization.

Open access
Performance Evaluation of African Breadfruit (Treculia Africana) Seed Dehuller

Abstract

This paper reports the effect of the parboiling time on dehulled kernel out-turns (DKO) of African breadfruit seeds, and the most recent effort to upgrade an existing dehuller and its performance. Two common and readily available varieties – Treculia var. africana and var. inverse were used in the study. The seeds were parboiled for 0 (control), 2, 5, 8, 11 and 14 minutes and then dehulled. The result revealed that the parboiling time had a significant effect on the DKO of the two varieties of the seed. The DKO increased from 0 to 5 min of the treatment, after which it decreased considerably up to 14 min of the parboiling time. The obtained data were used to develop a non-linear quadratic regression model to predict the DKO as a function of the parboiling time. The performance evaluation of the breadfruit seeds dehuller revealed that it was significantly influenced by the variety.

Open access
Preliminary Studies to Use Textile Fibers Obtained from Recycled Tires to Reinforce Asphalt Mixtures

Abstract

The use of crumb rubber in the modification of asphalt has occurred because of the problems related to disposal of scrap tires. However, the use of scrap tires in asphalt pavements, known as asphalt rubber pavements, can minimize environmental impacts and maximize conservation of natural resources. The textile fibers from recycled tires are typically disposed of in landfills or used in energetic valorization, but similar to other fibers, they can be used as a valuable resource in the reinforcement of engineering materials such as asphalt mixtures. Thus, this work aims at studying the use of textile fibers recycled from ground tires in the reinforcement of conventional asphalt mixtures. The application of textile fibers from ground tires was evaluated through laboratory tests on specimens extracted from slabs produced in the laboratory. Indirect tensile tests were performed on a series of nine asphalt mixtures with different fiber and asphalt contents and compared with a conventional mixture. The results obtained from a 50/70 pen asphalt were used to define three asphalt mixture configurations to be used with 35/50 pen asphalt. The results indicate that the textile fibers recycled from used tires can be a valuable resource in the reinforcement of asphalt mixtures.

Open access
Prospects for Production and Consumption of Second Generation Biofuels in Ukraine

Abstract

The article analyzes the current state of production of second generation biofuels in the world and evaluates the possibility of launching such production in Ukraine. The work is topical due to the fact that liquid biofuels can replace a certain share of motor fuels consumed in Ukraine, thus contributing to the strengthening of the country’s energy independence. The purpose of the study is to assess feasibility of a project on the production of second generation bioethanol in Ukraine; the task is to carry out a preliminary feasibility study for such a project. The analysis of the study of pure co-substrate fermentation and as a supplement for cattle manure proves that the maximum biogas yield obtained using alcohol stillage in a ratio of 40-80% increased compared to fermentation of pure cattle manure. The use of pure bards compared to the bard and the slurry mixture increases the maximum yield of biogas. It was found that the biogas obtained from the use of alcohol stillage is a high con-sumption of biogas with the methane content of between 70 and 78%.

Open access
Selected Properties of Multilayer Films Applied for Vacuum and Modified Atmosphere Packaging Systems

Abstract

The aim of the research was to determine the selected properties of packaging materials applicable for vacuum and modified atmosphere packaging. Six samples of multilayer films with different composition were tested to evaluate the thickness, basic weight, density and the mechanical properties in elongation and puncture tests. Zwick/Roell apparatus equipped with elongation jaws and a puncture pin was used in the experiments. The tensile modulus, tensile strength, elongation at tensile strength, stress at break and work at break were investigated with the elongation test, whereas the breaking force, puncture work and extension at break were evaluated with the puncture test. The obtained results allow conclusion that the thickness and basic weight of the packaging films used in the vacuum system was higher comparing with the MAP system. Analyzing the results of the elongation modulus and stress at break it was reported that the materials used for food packaging in the MAP system were characterized with better properties, whereas elongation at the tensile strength was higher for films applied in the vacuum system, except for a film with a metalized layer. The highest resistance for puncture was evaluated for OPET/PE film used in MAP packaging. The extension at break under the puncture test was higher for films dedicated for vacuum packaging suggesting their better resistance for the mechanical damage by a thin pin. Several correlations between physical and mechanical properties of multilayer films were found.

Open access