Browse

You are looking at 41 - 50 of 2,685 items for :

  • Sports and Recreation, other x
Clear All
Open access

Núria Puig, Susanna Soler and Anna Vilanova

Abstract

This article presents a biographical-professional outline of the career of Núria Puig. The authors place this outline in the Spanish socio-political context stretching from 1976 until the present day. A brief biography is followed successively by descriptions of formal training, mentors, institutional projects, teaching experience, and research. In the conclusion, a general evaluation is made of her professional career.

Open access

Anna Nikolova and Diana Dimitrova

Abstract

Study aim: Understanding the morphological determinants of performance is important for talent identification and optimiza­tion of training programs. The aim of this study was to examine the morphological characteristics of male and female cadet judokas considering the sex-related differences and athletic achievements. Material and methods: Seventy-four (30 female and 44 male) cadet judokas from the Bulgarian National Team underwent an anthropometric assessment of height, weight, lengths, circumferences, and 8 skinfolds. Body fat percentage (%BF) was calcu­lated using Slaughter et al. skinfold equations. Absolute and relative muscle mass, and arm and thigh muscle circumferences were also evaluated. Results: Except for the lower limb circumferences and thigh muscle circumference, a significant difference in most body dimensions was observed between the sexes. Male cadets had lower body fatness, but greater muscle mass as compared to female cadets. Medal winners from both sexes had lower %BF as compared to non-medalists. Male judokas with higher athletic achievements were significantly taller and had a larger arm span than their counterparts who are non-medalists (p < 0.05). Conclusions: Identified apparent sex-specific differences in almost all anthropometric variables and body composition param­eters in adolescent judo cadets followed the pattern typical for adult athletes. Both male and female medal-winner cadets had lower %BF compared to the less successful athletes, but did not differ from them in the absolute and relative muscle mass and limb muscle circumferences. Our results suggest that maintenance of low body fat rather than higher muscle mass is essential for the competitive success of judo players.

Open access

R. Lienhart, M. Einfalt and D. Zecha

Abstract

Human pose detection systems based on state-of-the-art DNNs are about to be extended, adapted and re-trained to fit the application domain of specific sports. Therefore, plenty of noisy pose data will soon be available from videos recorded at a regular and frequent basis. This work is among the first to develop mining algorithms that can mine the expected abundance of noisy and annotation-free pose data from video recordings in individual sports. Using swimming as an example of a sport with dominant cyclic motion, we show how to determine unsupervised time-continuous cycle speeds and temporally striking poses as well as measure unsupervised cycle stability over time. The average error in cycle length estimation across all strokes is 0.43 frames at 50 fps compared to manual annotations. Additionally, we use long jump as an example of a sport with a rigid phase-based motion to present a technique to automatically partition the temporally estimated pose sequences into their respective phases with a mAP of 0.89. This enables the extraction of performance relevant, pose-based metrics currently used by national professional sports associations. Experimental results prove the effectiveness of our mining algorithms, which can also be applied to other cycle-based or phase-based types of sport.

Open access

Tünde Szabó, Miklós Stocker, Balázs Győrffy and András Nemes

Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate long-term sports injuries, their prevalence, general identification of and consultation about injuries, and the knowledge among Hungarian athletes related to injury prevention. A questionnaire was designed to survey athletes regarding these topics. Olympic medal winners, nationally selected athletes, and amateur athletes were surveyed, and altogether 502 completed questionnaires were obtained. The data was analyzed with the Chi-square test for dichotomous variables and the Kruskal-Wallis H-test for questions with the Likert scale to try the statistical power of the hypotheses. The results of our analysis show that athletes suffer injuries regardless of their level of play, and that athletes regard their sports to be moderately dangerous. Most athletes would compete despite the risk of permanent injury; they compete with injuries mostly of their own volition; and they will risk potential injuries or long-term health damage to gain exceptional outcomes. Success is the first and foremost desire of athletes, and the risk of injuries or even long-term health damage does not play an important role in the value system of Hungarian athletes. Sport managers and officers of sport federations must be made aware that the first line of prevention of sport injuries is comprehensive medical consultation with proper medical coverage.

Open access

Kamil Michalik, Szymon Glinka, Natalia Danek and Marek Zatoń

Abstract

Introduction. So far there have been few studies on the effect of interval training with active recovery aimed at increasing aerobic power on the physical capacity of long-distance runners. Unlike standard interval training, this particular type of interval training does not include passive rest periods but combines high-intensity training with low-intensity recovery periods. The aims of the study were to determine the effect of aerobic power training implemented in the form of interval training with active recovery on the physical capacity of amateur long-distance runners as well as to compare their results against those of a group of runners who trained in a traditional manner and only performed continuous training.

Material and methods. The study involved 12 recreational male long-distance runners, who were randomly divided into two groups, consisting of 6 persons each. Control group C performed continuous training 3 times a week (for 90 minutes, with approximately 65-85% VO2max). Experimental group E participated in one training session similar to the one implemented in group C and additionally performed interval training with active recovery twice a week. The interval training included a 20-minute warm-up and repeated running sprints of maximum intensity lasting 3 minutes (800-1,000 m). Between sprints, there was a 12-minute bout of running with an intensity of approximately 60-70% VO2max. The time of each repetition was measured, and the first one was treated as a benchmark in a given training unit. If the duration of a subsequent repetition was 5% shorter than that of the initial repetition, the subjects underwent a 15-minute cool-down period. A progressive treadmill test was carried out before and after the 7-week training period. The results were analysed using non-parametric statistical tests.

Results. VO2max increased significantly both in group E (p < 0.05; d = 0.86) and C (p < 0.05; d = 0.71), and there was an improvement in effort economy at submaximal intensity. Although the differences were not significant, a much greater change in the post-exercise concentrations of lactate and H+ ions was found in group E.

Conclusions. The study showed that interval training with active recovery increased VO2max in amateur runners with higher initial physical capacity and stimulated adaptation to metabolic acidosis more than continuous training.

Open access

Carlos Rey Perez

Abstract

In Ancient Greece, the figure of the hero was identified as a demigod, possessed of altruistic and virtuous deeds. When Pierre de Coubertin reinstated the Olympic Games, the athlete was personified as a modern hero. Its antithesis, the anti-hero, has more virtue that defects, no evil but he does not care on the means to achieve his goals. In the eyes of everyone involved in sports competition, these characters captivate and at the same time, create conflicts of ethics and aesthetics. The purpose of this paper is to perform an ethical reflection linked to principles that contribute for the human growth and accomplishment, as well as the aesthetic on the perception of the sensitive, reverberated by sensations and feelings emerging from athletes. Connecting the ethic with the aesthetic spheres, we could have in the sports a phenomenon walking toward a common point between moral and aesthetic, between the good and the beauty.

Open access

C. A. Morales

Abstract

A geometric simplification of a recent proposal for a new geometry of the penalty area for football (soccer) is presented. A simplified line is necessary because the fully mathematical curve previously proposed can be difficult to implement in the real world of football, which has thousands of tournaments at all –economic and generational–levels of the sport. The idea behind the proposal is that the game and its fairness can be improved if the penalty area is drawn according to mathematics or a measure of actual scoring chance.

Open access

A. Karpov

Abstract

Generalized knockout tournament seedings for an arbitrary number of participants in one match are designed. Several properties of knockout tournament seedings are investigated. Enumeration results for knockout tournament seedings with different properties are obtained. Several new generalized knockout tournaments seedings are proposed and justified by a set of properties.

Open access

J. Perl

Abstract

The players’ positions of tactical groups in soccer can be mapped to formation-patterns by means of artificial neural networks (Kohonen, 1995). This way, the hundreds of positional situations of one half of a match can be reduced to about 20 to 30 types of formations (Grunz, Perl & Memmert, 2012; Perl, 2015), the coincidences of which can be used for describing and simulating tactical processes of the teams (Memmert, Lemmink & Sampaio, 2017): Developing and changing formations in the interaction with the opponent activities can be understood as a tactical game in the success context of ball control, space control and finally generating dangerous situations. As such it can be simulated using mathematical approaches like Monte Carlo-simulation and game theory in order to generate optimal strategic patterns. However, in accordance with results from game theory it turns out that in most cases the one optimal strategy does not exist (e.g. see Durlauf & Blume, 2010). Instead, a variety of partial strategies with different frequencies were necessary – an approach that is mathematically interesting but has nothing to do with soccer reality. An alternative approach, which is developed in the following, is to interrupt the strictness of a single strategic concept by creative elements, which improves flexible response to opponent activities as well as prevents from being analyzed by the opponent team.

The results of respective simulation reach from improving strategic behaviour to recognizing strategic patterns and in particular to analyzing role and meaning of creative elements.

Open access

S. Hüttermann, B. Noël and D. Memmert

Abstract

In the last thirty years, an increasing interest in sport sciences regarding the analysis of expert athletes’ gaze behavior has become apparent. This narrative review provides an overview of the use of eye tracking systems in high-performance sports from 1987 to 2016. A systematic search of the PubMed, Scopus, SPORTDiscus, and WebofScience databases was conducted. The search was performed using the keywords eye tracking, eye movement, gaze behavior/patterns, and visual search strategies in combination with high-performance sports, elite athletes, high-class athletes, sport experts, and top-athletes. It yielded a total of 86 studies of which almost half were conducted computer-based or in front of a screen. Most studies dealt with the analysis of gaze behavior during dead ball situations while also focusing on differences between expert athletes and novices. More high-quality intervention studies are essential to determine if there are ideal gaze strategies and, if yes, how it is possible to learn/implement these.