The aim of the study was to examine the effect of plyometric exercises on explosive strength of lower extremities in girls performing of technical and aesthetical sports. Experiment was carried out on three groups; artistic gymnasts (VG, n = 15; age = 12.4 ± 0.7 years), fitness girls (VF, n = 15; age = 13.8 ± 1.9 years) and dancers (VD, n = 15; age = 13.8 ± 2 years). To check, the control group of general population was involved in the study (VK, n = 15; age = 13.9 ± 1.5 years). Following tests on jump ergometer Fitro Jumper were carried out at the beginning and at the end of experimental period: countermovement jump without and with arms swing and 10- second series of repeated vertical jumps. Plyometric program consisted of two plyometric units a week during thirty weeks. The results show that higher improvement in all evaluated tests achieved the group of fitness. In the countermovement jump without arm swing was observed improvement height of the jump 3.4 ± 1.4 cm (p ˂ 0.00001), in the countermovement jump with arm swing 5.7 ± 1.5 cm (p ˂ 0.00001), in difference of height of the jump between countermovement jump with and without arms swing 2.3 ± 1 cm (p ˂ 0.00001), in ten second series of repeated vertical jumps without arms swing in the height of jump 4.2 ± 1.6 cm (p ˂ 0.00001) and in power in active take off phase 8.8 ± 2.2 W.kg-1 (p ˂ 0.00001). Based on finding the study and in coherence with data from literature, we can conclude the effect of plyometric exercises was effective in combination with specific-strength training. Jumping ability is limiting factor of sport performance in technical and aesthetical sports and implementation of plyometric exercises to the training is highly recommend. The high level of jump capabilities can improve the quality and technique of performance complex acrobatic elements and dance leaps thereby increasing overall evaluation of performance in selected sports.
The study evaluates changes of muscle power and velocity during trunk rotations in ice-hockey players after six weeks of training in competition period. A group of 15 ice-hockey players performed 2 trunk rotations to each direction in a standing position with barbell of 6, 10, 12, 16, 20, 22, 26 kg placed on the shoulders. Basic biomechanical parameters during the movement were monitored using the FiTRO Torso Dyne system. Results showed that mean velocity in acceleration phase of trunk rotation significantly increased after 6 weeks of training at 6 kg (from 259 to 282.6 deg/s, p = 0.003) and 12 kg (from 218.8 to 244.1 deg/s p = 0.004). However, its values did not changed significantly during rotations with 10, 16, 20, 22 and 26 kg. Mean power of trunk rotation did not changed significantly with any of used weight. These findings indicate that there are only small changes in muscle power in competition period of ice hockey-players.
Matej Šmída, Michal Clementis, Dušan Hamar and Yvetta Macejková
Aim of this study was to compare relation between maximal anaerobic power output and 2,000 m test on rowing ergometer and relation between 6,000 m test and 2,000 m on rowing ergometer. It can be assumed that 2,000 m performance on rowing ergometer will significantly correlate with maximal anaerobic power output and 6,000 m performance. A group of 9 welltrained rowers (age: 18.3 years ± 2.8 years, sport age: 4.9 years ± 3.7 years, weight: 78.9 kg ± 12.2 kg, height: 182.3 cm ± 7.6 cm) performed three tests in 1 week to determine maximal anaerobic power, 6,000 m and 2,000 m performance on Concept 2 model D rowing ergometer. A value of simple maximal stroke out of 10-second all-out test with drag factor set to 200 was taken as a measure of maximal anaerobic power. Drag factor for 6,000 m and 2,000 m test was set individually. Average power during these tests was record. Research showed that both maximal anaerobic power and 6,000 m test correlated with 2,000 m test on rowing ergometer significantly (rmap = 0.93 p < 0.01, r6k = 0.95 p < 0.01). Maximal anaerobic power and 6,000 m tests seem to be good predictors for 2,000 m score on rowing ergometer. However, maximal anaerobic power test can be used to monitor rowing performance during specific training cycle instead of longer and more demanding 6,000 m test.
Performance in all canoe disciplines is based on the physical condition of the paddler and his technique and mental ability to adapt to the racing condition. The strength belongs to the most important physical factors in canoe sprint and canoe slalom disciplines. We believed that in canoe freestyle the strength has an important role in relation to the performance in comparison to other canoe disciplines. The aim of this study was to identify the relationship between upper body strength and special canoe freestyle performance. The study group consisted of 16 senior kayak freestyle paddlers in the age group 26 ± 3 years old. Fitro Dyne Premium was device used to obtain data for analysis of the level of general upper body strength abilities. To determine special upper body strength we used tests on paddle machine and freestyle kayaking flat water tests. Freestyle performance was measured during ECA Euro Cup 2013 competition in Slovakia, Čunovo by official ICF judges. The data obtained were measured by the Spearman Correlation (r) correlation test. The results of the study show significant relations between kayak freestyle performance and test of general strength endurance (p < 0.05), special strength endurance, special dynamic strength (p < 0.01). There were no statistically significant correlations between kayak freestyle performance and general maximal power, dynamic strength, special maximal power.
The aim of the study was to determine the status of SE in people with physical disabilities (PwPD) and compare SE scores between active and inactive individuals. The sample of PwPD (n = 186) was divided into two groups of those who are regularly participating in sport (active; n = 88) and those who are not participating in any sport in their leisure (inactive; n = 98). The Rosenberg Self-Esteem Scale (RSES) was used as a primary research method. 10-item scale measures global self-worth by measuring positive and negative feelings about the self. Higher scores (from 10 to 40 points) indicate higher SE. The Pearson chi-square test was used to determine the differences of 10 RSES items and total scores between active and inactive PwPD. We found that the mean score of RSES in PwPD was 28.83 points; active PwPD observed total score of RSES 30.01 points and group of inactive PwPD showed the lowest SE by achieving 27.76 points. Mean scores comparison of each RSES item between active and inactive PwPD revealed higher SE in the group of active PwPD. Significantly higher SE was presented by 4 from 10 RSES items and by total score in the group of active PwPD. The results of our study confirmed that actively living PwPD have significantly higher SE comparing those PwPD who are living sedentary life style.
This paper reports on findings of a pilot research to determine the level of swimming ability of children with weak respiratory system aged between 10 - 11 years, who attended special classes for asthmatics. Swimming ability was assessed by 25 m free style swimming test. The results of asthmatics were compared with healthy peers (Benčuriková 2006; Kováčová 2010; Labudová 2011). The results confirmed that the level of swimming capability of asthmatic children, despite their handicap, is significantly higher than their healthy peers.
Oľga Kyselovičová, Jana Labudová, Erika Zemková, Dušana Čierna and Michal Jeleň
Synchronized swimming and aerobic gymnastics are competitive sports that have grown in popularity throughout the Slovakia and around the world. Unfortunately, a paucity of research exists either on anthropometric and physiological characteristics or physical benefits of these sports. The present study examined anthropometric and cardiovascular characteristics of control group - CO (n = 10) in comparison to competitive synchronized swimmers - SS (n = 11) and aerobic gymnasts - AG (n = 10) between the ages of 13 and 25 years. The physical measures were assessed per the protocols in the following order: height (BH), weight (BW), body mass index (BMI), and % body fat (% BF). The measurements of maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) and maximum heart rate (HRmax) were examined by spiroergometry via COSMED K4b2. All measurements were collected by trained data collection staff. An analysis of variance (Kruskal - Wallis) with a Mann-Whitney U test for the significant effect among the three groups showed that aerobic gymnasts were taller than synchronized swimmers and control group (p = .02). Training and conditioning requirements specific for the two athletic groups caused that AG and SS have higher level of VO2max (p = .02) and VO2max.kg-1 (p = .00), and also lower level of the body weight (p= .01), BMI (p = .01) and the % BF (p = .00). These findings confirm that selected parameters are considered the bases for success in elite sports. This information could also help to design specific training and evaluate the adaptation to training stimuli with the aim to maximize sport performance.
Stanislav Kraček, Petra Pačesová, Pavel Šmela and Miloš Štefanovský
The aim of this paper is to ascertain the correlation between selected cognitive abilities, age and performance of judokas according to ranking. The study group consisted of judokas in the age group 18 ± 2.4 years. The Stroop Color-Word Test - Victoria Version (VST) was the instrument used to determine the level of cognitive abilities. The data obtained were measured by the Pearson Correlation (r) correlation test. The results of the study show an associative relationship of indirect correlation (p < 0.01) between age and all of the three categories of the Stroop test. This is an indirect correlation, so the higher the age, the lower the time (better performance) of the probands in the Stroop test. There was no statistically significant correlation between performance in the categories of the Stroop test and rankings. The outcomes show that the level of selected cognitive abilities depends on age, but the level of the selected cognitive abilities does not affect the ranking of the judokas.
The aim of our study was to determine changes in sport and motor performance of competitors in the category of children’s fitness as a result of conditioning training intervention. We conducted a two-group simultaneous experiment. Experimental group (EG) and control group (CG) consisted of 18 girls competing in the 12 to 15 years old age categories. EG performed supervised conditioning program over a period of 25 weeks with training frequency 3 times per week. Based on the results of physical tests, competitive and expert assessments of sport performance in the children’s fitness category we found significant effect of our conditioning program to increase sport and motor performance in the experimental group. Subsequently, these improvements could lead to success in domestic and international competitions where they occupied the leading positions. Significant relationships (EG = 19; CG = 10) were found between competitive and expert assessments as well as physical tests results, between expert and competitive assessments of physiques and routines. These changes manifested positively not only in the competitive assessment of the physique but also in the expert “blind“ assessment in the competitive discipline of the physique presentation in quarter turns where we observed significant improvements in the EG. Based on the obtained results we recommend to increase the ratio of conditioning training to gymnastic-dance training to 50 %, inclusion of strengthening and plyometric exercises into the training process and monitor regularly the level of general and specific abilities of the competitors in the individual mezocycles of the annual training cycle.
The purpose of the study was to evaluate the influence of coaches` communication discourse determined by educational program Mastery Approach to Coaching (MAC) on changes of players` level of pre-competitive anxiety and self-esteem. The research was applied on 10 coaches of collective sports and 161 players. For diagnosing, the level of cognitive, somatic anxiety and selfesteem was used standardized questionnaire CSAI-2R. Players of experimental group decreased level of intensity of cognitive (p = 0.004) and somatic anxiety as well as frequency and increased level of selfesteem intensity (p = 0.021) and frequency during intervention period. After three months’ experiment period players of experimental group experienced lower intensity (p = 0.000) and frequency of cognitive anxiety as well as lower intensity (p = 0.012) and frequency (p = 0.037) of somatic anxiety than players in control group. Players of experimental group perceived direction of self-esteem intrusions (p = 0.041) as well as intrusions of cognitive and somatic anxiety more positively than players of control group after intervention period.