This study was carried out to examine constraints to sport participation among female secondary school students in Hlanganani rural area, Limpopo Province, South Africa. A total of 101 female students aged 17–24 years from four secondary schools were recruited to participate in the study. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect data. Results indicated that the dress code, lack of energy, lack of family support and family commitment were identified as major constraints to sport participation among female students. The results of this study provide practical implications for promoting and developing female sports programmes in rural schools. This study suggests that stakeholders such as parents, peers, and teachers should motivate and encourage female students to participate in school sport. Additionally, the study recommended that in order to promote sport participation in rural areas, the values, norms, beliefs, attitudes and customs that restrict females from participating in sport and physical activity should be dissented.
Rashid Menhas, Shumaila Umer, Saira Akhtar and Ghulam Shabbir
Religion is a unified system of sacred norms, values, beliefs and objects. In any society religion plays an important role in the shaping of the people’s lives, behaviour and interactions. In every aspect of life people consult with their religion and act according to the teachings of religion. At present modernization, globalization and social change are creating very drastic changes in every sphere of life. These changes have both negative and positive impacts on the society. Modernisation is also creating very serious changes in the social institution of religion. In Pakistan, modernization have very severe impact on religion and many sub-sects have been created under the religion of Islam. Each and every sect is claiming that their teachings are true. This phenomenon is crating sectarian violence in Pakistani society. Present study was conducted in the province of “Khyber Pakhtun Khwa, Pakistan”. Pakhtun people follow religion strictly in every segment of life. They sacrifices their lives on the name of Islam. But at present due to modernization, this phenomenon has been changed. Main objective of this study was to analyze the major impacts of modernisation on the religion of Islam in “Pakhtun” culture and society.
Compared to the European countries, the sociologic research related to religiousness and religious affiliation ranks Romania among the most religious countries, this aspect being proved also by the active positioning of the Church in society, especially in the public space. The verification of the phenomenon may be done also through our research theme, which has a content focused on social work, whose result may be used accordingly. There are publications in the field of social work also containing chapters about the Church as an institution, describing the specific activities with social character (either of philanthropy, or of empirical assistance, or even professionalised social work). Nevertheless, most papers mention the Church only in the description of some historical aspects of social work in Romania. Our topic is new because a research similar to ours has not been conducted in Romania yet, in our opinion, as in all bibliographic sources used in the writing of our paper he have found no research approaching such topics. The entire scientific endeavour starts from the formal systematic and non-systematic collaboration already existing between Churches and DGASPCs, but in order to scientifically validate this hypothesis we chose to conduct also a quantitative analysis of the data collected through a questionnaire with closed questions. The main purpose of our paper is the highlighting of the specificity of the interaction between the Church and the social work practice in Romania, through the existing partnership links between the State and the Church.
Considered a fundamental element of human existence, communication has been used since ancient times for the purpose of “transmitting something to the others also”. Although the term of “communication” has Latin origin, the first practical preoccupations for this issue are found in the Ancient Greeks’ works and were related to oratory which, in its turn, was promoted as “art of the word”. Even if in the literature the notion of “communication” was defined in a complex manner, being assigned numerous valences. Theoreticians found that, on the level of human communication, two common elements clearly appear for each of the meanings of this term. Thus, on the one hand, communication is perceived as a true process of information transmission, and on the other hand no human action, irrespective of the level of its realisation, can be conceived outside this process. Beyond the completion of the main theoretical models for the phenomena of organisational communication, the present article attempts to forward the author's personal diagnosis of a child protection institution, more precisely the General Division for Social Work/Assistance and Child Protection Caraş-Severin (DGASPC), valuing a wide-range methodology (analysis of social documents, interview, and structured observation). Thus, by combining the quantitative endeavour with the qualitative one, we highlighted the existence of a formal ascendant vertical communication, opposed or complementary to the descendant vertical one characterising most of Romanian organisational practices. The special institutional specificity of DGASPC turns this organisational territory into a possible model of interpersonal relationing, different from the general specificity existing in Romanian public institutions where the boss dictates.