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Open access

M. Dragún, G. Dóka, M. Máťuš, P. Křenek and J. Klimas

Abstract

Aim: The aim is to identify the possible changes in the expression of genes, that regulate calcium homeostasis in cardiomyocytes in diabetes mellitus.

Methods: Male Wistar rats were randomized into two experimental protocols: short-term 5-days streptozotocin-induced diabetes protocol with 20 weeks old animals at the end of the protocol (total N = 20) and long-term 4-weeks protocol with 18 weeks of age at the end of the protocol (total N = 38). 50 mg/kg of streptozotocin (STZ) was administered in both protocols by a single intraperitoneal injection in 0,1M citrate buffer (pH = 4.5). Control group (CON) received only vehiculum. Gene expressions in samples of left heart ventricle were measured by RT-qPCR method.

Results: The expression of SERCA2a in short-term protocol was decreased. In long-term protocol, decreased SERCA2a, TRPC4 and TRPC6 mRNA levels were observed (*p < 0.05). SERCA2a and TRPC4 mRNA levels exhibited statistical monotonic correlation in STZ-treated group in long-term protocol.

Conclusions: In diabetes mellitus, the calcium homeostasis in cardiomyocytes is altered and there could be a relation between alteration of internal sarcoplasmatic stores and store-operated calcium entry.

Open access

Gaal György

Abstract

Zsigmond Purjesz (1846–1918) was born at Szentes (Hungary), and he became MD at Budapest in 1870. In 1880 he applied for and won by competition the professor’s chair of Internal Medicine at Cluj/Kolozsvár University. He taught there for three decades, and founded a medical school. In 1911 he retired and moved to Budapest. According to his wish, he was buried at Kolozsvár.

The first part of our study presents the preliminaries of Purjesz’s appointment to Kolozsvár, based on the documents of the Kolozsvár Medical Faculty kept in the State Archives at Marosvásárhely/Târgu Mureş. Endre Takács from Budapest and Ignác Büchler from Kolozsvár were the other two applicants. A board of three university professors proposed Purjesz on the first, Takács on the second and Büchler on the third place to be appointed as professor. On ministerial proposal the king decided to appoint Purjesz on the 2nd of May, 1880.

In the second part of the study we take into account the recognitions and decorations Purjesz got. In 1893 for his activity during the cholera epidemic he was awarded with the Iron-Crown Order, 3rd class. In 1901 he got the title of Court councilor, which implied the form of address “Right Honorable”. In 1906 at the 25th anniversary of his professorship his students and colleagues compiled a memorial volume dedicated to him. In 1910 the Royal City of Kolozsvár declared him Honorary Citizen. Following his retirement his bust made by György Vastagh was unveiled at the courtyard of the hospital. In 1911, the king recognizing his healing and teaching activity raised him to the rank of Hungarian nobility.

Open access

Kolcsár Melinda, Gáll Zsolt, Bába László-István and Kun Imre Zoltán

Abstract

The relationship between antidepressants (AD) and metabolic syndrome (MS) can be approached from many perspectives. We can start from the mutuality of depression and MS: depression often causes MS and vice versa; however, the two diseases aggravate each other. Altered glucocorticoid secretion - among others - may be a common etiological factor for depression and MS. Enhanced glucocorticoid production leads both to sleep disorders and insulin resistance, and several antidepressants cause obesity and insulin resistance. In addition, sympathetic nervous system activity increases in depression, together with the elevated production of counter-insulin hormones such as catecholamines (adrenaline) and glucocorticoids. From the components of MS, body weight changes can be most easily followed by the patient. The obesogenic mechanisms of AD drugs are different. The H1-receptor blocking agents have the most important weight gaining effect, followed by the 5-HT2c-receptor blocking and/or down-regulating ADs. The fattening effect of mirtazapine, paroxetine, and tricyclic antidepressants are based on such central mechanisms. Blocking of alpha1-receptors contributes to the obesogenic effects of certain drugs by inducing sedation: this has been confirmed in case of imipramine, amitriptyline, and doxepin. Fluoxetine behaves differently depending on the dose and duration of treatment: while at the usual doses it induces weight loss at the beginning of therapy, its initial anorexigenic effects reverses during prolonged use; while its activation effect at high doses is favorable in bulimia. The selective noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor reboxetine reduces appetite, similarly to bupropion, which inhibits dopamine reuptake as well. We highlight the effect of fluoxetine on direct adipogenicity, mentioning its preadipocyteadipocyte transformation-reducing and adipocyte proliferation-inhibiting activity, as well as its ability to enhance fat cell autophagy.

Open access

Blandina Bernal-Morales, Gabriel Guillén-Ruiz, Jonathan Cueto-Escobedo, Juan Francisco Rodríguez-Landa and Carlos M. Contreras

Abstract

The present study investigated the sensitivity to stress and diazepam in weaning (21-day old) Wistar rats. A single 15-min session of forced swimming was used to induce anxiety-like behavior. The group that was forced to swim exhibited an increase in anxiety-like behavior in the elevated plus maze (EPM) and open field test (OFT) compared to the non-stressed group. Diazepam (1 h before the tests) reduced anxiety-like behavior in rats forced to swim compared to the vehicle stressed group. The dose-response curve for diazepam indicated that the 0.5 mg kg−1 dose (1 h before the EPM and OFT) was the minimum effective dose in reducing anxiety-like behavior without altering locomotor activity in weaning rats. These results indicate that weaning rats can develop anxiety-like behavior after a brief, single session of stress, and that rats at this age are seemingly more sensitive to diazepam than adult rats, which may be taken into account for clinical applications.

Open access

Kamila Fux-Zalewska, Beata Kubic-Filiks and Jolanta Szymanska

Abstract

The first visit to the dentist should take place within 6 months after the first deciduous tooth erupts, and not later than in the 12th month of the child’s life. To assess the role of paediatricians in the prophylaxis of early childhood caries, the authors studied recommendations given to parents about the age when their child should see the dentist for the first time. The survey covered 250 parents of children aged from 11 to 69 months who attended nursery schools and kindergartens in Lublin. Our results show that paediatricians only referred 12.80% (n = 32) of all children at the age of between 3 to 66 months for their first visit to the dentist. Herein, half of the references were of children younger than 2 years (Me = 24.0). In total, the mean age of the child was 22.41 ± 13.24 months on reference.

Thus, paediatricians refer children to the dentist for their first visit too seldom and too late. It is essential that paediatricians learn to participate to a greater extent in the prevention of early childhood caries. The cooperation between the paediatrician and the dentist is necessary to provide complex and comprehensive care to developmental age patients.

Open access

Lourdes A. Vega Rasgado, Guillermo Ceballos Reyes and Fernando Vega Díaz

Abstract

In an attempt to clarify the controversial role of nitric oxide (NO) in seizures, the effects of NO on brain GABA transaminase (GABA-T) activity and GABA levels were investigated. To this aim, the effects of the substrate (l-arginine) and inhibitors (Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, 7-nitroindazole) of NO synthase (NOS) on GABA-T activity and GABA levels in vitro and ex vivo were analyzed. In vitro NO diminished GABA-T activity and increased GABA. Ex vivo NO modified GABA-T activity and GABA levels biphasically. Inhibition of endothelial and neuronal NOS (eNOS and nNOS) had opposite effects on GABA-T activity and GABA levels, even during seizures induced by pentylenetetrazole. Different effects of NO on GABA-T activity and on GABA levels, depending on the NOS isoform involved, may explain its contradictory role in seizures, the endothelial NOS acting as an anticonvulsant and the neuronal NOS as a proconvulsant. nNOS inhibitors may represent a new generation of antiepileptics.

Open access

Ahmed M. Gouda, Ahmed H. Abdelazeem, Ashraf N. Abdalla and Muhammad Ahmed

Abstract

Towards optimization of the pyrrolizine-5-carboxamide scaffold, a novel series of six derivatives (4a-c and 5a-c) was prepared and evaluated for their anti-inflammatory, analgesic and anticancer activities. The (EZ)-7-cyano-6-((4-hydroxybenzylidene)amino)-N-(p-tolyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-5-carboxamide (4b) and (EZ)-6-((4-chlorobenzylidene)-amino)-7-cyano-N-(p-tolyl)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-5-carboxamide (5b) bearing the electron donating methyl group showed the highest anti-inflammatory activity while (EZ)-6-((4-chlorobenzylidene)amino)-7-cyano-N-phenyl-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-5-carboxamide (5a) was the most active analgesic agent. Cytotoxicity of the new compounds was evaluated against the MCF-7, A2780 and HT29 cancer cell lines using the MTT assay. Compounds 4b and 5b displayed high anticancer activity with IC 50 in the range of 0.30–0.92 μmol L−1 against the three cell lines, while compound (EZ)-N-(4-chlorophenyl)-7-cyano-6-((4-hydroxybenzylidene)-amino)-2,3-dihydro-1H-pyrrolizine-5-carboxamide (4c) was the most active against MCF-7 cells (IC 50 = 0.08 μmol L−1). Both the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities of the new compounds were dependent on the type of substituent on the phenyl rings. Substituents with opposite electronic effects on the two phenyl rings are preferable for high cytotoxicity against the MCF-7 and A2780 cells. COX inhibition was suggested as the molecular mechanism of the anti-inflammatory activity of the new compounds while no clear relationship could be observed between COX inhibition and anticancer activity. Compound 5b, the most active against the three cell lines, induced dose-dependent early apoptosis with 0.1–0.2 % necrosis in MCF-7 cells. New compounds showed promising drug-likeness scores while the docking study revealed high binding affinity to COX-2. Taken together, this study highlighted the significant impact of the substituents on the anti-inflammatory and anticancer activity of pyrrolizine-5-carboxamides, which could help in further optimization to discover good leads for the treatment of cancer and inflammation.

Open access

Agnieszka Kujawska, Joanna Androsiuk-Perkowska, Jakub Husejko, Marcin Kozuchowski, Daria Bieniek, Natalia Skierkowska, Weronika Topka, Malgorzata Gajos and Kornelia Kedziora-Kornatowska

Abstract

Anabolic steroids (AS) have been a subject of intensive research for the last several decades. Due to wide use of AS in pharmacological treatment and in professional and amateur sport, it is, hence, worthwhile to describe the biochemical mechanism of the effects of AS usage in humans and its potential health risks. In this work, the relationship between diet and its effect on the level of testosterone in blood is described. Testosterone affects the nervous system, however, there is need for further researches to examine the influence of AS therapy on emotional and cognitive functioning. AS therapy has known negative effects on the cardiovascular system: cardiac hypertrophy can occur, blood pressure can vastly increased, thrombotic complications can come about. These effects are observed not only in patients who are treated with AS, but also in athletes. The paper also describes the relationship between AS and reproductive system diseases. Decreased libido and erectile dysfunction are only some of the many side effects of an incorrect AS treatment.

Open access

Martyna Kasela and Anna Malm

Abstract

Choosing the appropriate method for differentiation of Staphylococcus aureus strains is important for effective diagnostics and epidemiological investigations. Despite the fact that the results of phenotypic methods are strongly dependent on environmental conditions, they can still be useful in the investigation of epidemic strains of S. aureus. In this article, the potential application of commonly used phenotypic methods in epidemiological studies of S. aureus was analysed. Advantages and disadvantages of methods such as biotyping, serotyping, phage typing, AST (Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing), SDS-PAGE (Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacryl Gel Electrophoresis), MLEE (Multilocus Enzyme Electrophoresis) and MALDI-TOF MS (Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/Ionization Time-Of-Flight Mass Spectroscopy) were also discussed. Finally, phenotypic techniques were compared in terms of their discriminatory potential, typeability of isolates, time of analysis, reproducibility, ease of performance and ease of results interpretation.