An overview of protection mechanisms of organic coatings for metallic constructions and products is given. The barrier effect of coatings and protection in local defects are discussed. Basic degradation mechanisms of organic coatings such as anodic and cathodic delamination in vicinity of defects, osmotic and cathodic blistering, mechanical stress assisted blistering, loss of adhesion and chalking are described. Appropriate laboratory tests are proposed for each degradation mode.
P. Pokorný, P. Bouška, T. Bittner, J. Kolísko, M. Vokáč, T. Mandlík and J. Müllerová
The paper evaluates extent of corrosion damage to composite glass-fibre fabric reinforcement in environment simulating concrete pore solutions (pH 12.6, 13.0, 13.5) and carbonated concrete contaminated with chlorides (pH 8.1 + Cl-) using the FT-IR and SEM/EDS techniques. Also, the effect of corrosion damage on tensile strength of segmented glass fibre as well as the presence of specific protective organic coating on glass fibre were studied. The results demonstrate local corrosion damage of samples at pH 13.5 and on the other hand high stability in environment simulating carbonated concrete and carbonated concrete contaminated with chlorides. The study also suggests unevenness of organic coating with occurrence of localized porosity which is related to aforementioned corrosion damage. Corrosion damage in FT-IR spectra manifests by changes in peaks signalling hydrolysis of protective organic coating and occurrence of peaks suggesting presence of Ca2+ rich corrosion products.
This article is aimed at summarizing knowledge about copper and patina that is formed on the surface of copper. The article describes chemical processes in patina formation and explains the difference between natural and artificial patina, as well as some methods used in the investigation of patina such as XRD analysis, EIS analysis, Raman spectroscopy
The aim of this work is to describe and analyze corrosion problems and their solutions in oil, gas, and refining industry. Corrosion phenomena and factors influencing them are discussed. Corrosion control and monitoring methods are illustrated. Corrosion management plays vital role in the solving of corrosion problems. The results are summarized in new book of the author “Corrosion Problems and Solutions in Oil Refining and Petrochemical Industry” published by Springer in 2016.
This work was focused on changes of corrosion behaviour influence of deformation. The This work focuses on changes in corrosion behaviour under the influence of deformation. The main purpose is to observe the changes caused by tensile stress. The experimental material used is steel 1.4301 and titanium GRADE 2. The measurements were carried out using a potentiostat, which measures potential changes over time and electric current. The electrolyte used was 3.5% NaCl. Corrosion properties, especially polarization resistance, corrosion potential and corrosion rate, were evaluated from the measurements. The results demonstrate the changing corrosion properties depending on deformation. The corrosion properties worsened as the deformation increased.
The article is focused on the possibilities of ultrasound surfaces control on metallic materials by conventional ultrasonic techniques. Physical principles, types of ultrasonic waves to be used for surface control are described in the theoretical part. Three surface control techniques are listed in the experimental part of article. The first technique is a common control by angle ultrasonic probe with using transverse waves. The second technique is surface control by 30-70-70 creep waves and third techniques is surface testing by Rayleigh waves. Practical examples of ultrasonic testing for all techniques are illustrated. The conclusion of the article is devoted to the advantages and limitations of the individual testing methods.
M. Lovíšek, T. Liptáková, J. Bronček and S. Dundeková
Tribological properties of Al-brass pipes of various producers were studied in different environments. The tested brasses have very similar chemical composition, but they differ in microstructure due to mainly by heat treatment after cold drawing. Microstructure as well as roughness of surface influence chemical and mechanical properties which are important in operating conditions. The experiments of tribological behavior were made in various environments, dry air, cooling treated water and 3.5 % solution of NaCl at room temperature 21 ± 2°C. The tribological tests were carried out on the Linear Tribometer at normal loading 5 N by the method ball on plate for the duration of 5500 s. The measured friction coefficients were evaluated by the program DIAdem and the diagrams were created from signal generated by software NSignal Express
Kristīne Kalneniece, Andrejs Bērziņš, Zaiga Petriņa, Kristīne Ruģele, Elīna Salava, Kārlis Švirksts, Māra Grūbe, Vizma Nikolajeva and Olga Mutere
The aim of this study was to characterize the digestate from an activated sludge biogas reactor (IDARS) as an inoculum for enzymatic hydrolysis and biogas production from organic wastes. Aerobic and anaerobic bacteria are represented in IDARS with H’ index 3.1 and 2.5, respectively. IDARS stimulated the enzymatic hydrolysis of wood and leaves, preferably broadleaf tree species. The results demonstrated the potential of IDARS for improvement of the technological parameters for conversion of organic wastes into biogas.
Jūlija Karasa, Juris Kostjukovs and Solveiga Grinberga
Low cost, effective and water soluble organic coagulant is offered for the extraction of charged clay particles. Coagulation with KOHIDRAC results in simultaneous concentration and purification of the clay fraction. After treatment with KOHIDRAC the obtained clay samples were free of carbonates and feldspar. Moreover, the amount of quartz decreased significantly in finished samples. The proposed coagulant and the patented methodology can be successfully used as purification procedure or as pretreatment for qualitative and quantitative analysis of clay minerals. The possible structure of the active compound KOHIDRAC was investigated in this paper. Real applications of the coagulant were provided.
Ceramic water filters were prepared from different proportions of kaolin and soft wood and sintered at 900 °C, 950 °C, and 1000 °C. The flow rate, conductivity, pH of filtered water and removal efficiency (microbial, water hardness agent’s, nitrite and turbidity) were analysed. The ceramic filter with 15 % saw dust, 80 % clay and 5 % grog that was fired at temperature of 950 °C or 1000 °C showed the best removal efficiency. Statistical ANOVA tests showed a significant difference between ceramic filters with various compositions in their removal efficiencies.