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Open access

L. Janikovičová, Z. Demčišáková, L. Luptáková and Petrovová E

Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the effect of eggs stored with and without pre-incubation on chick embryos with emphasis on: embryo body, heart weight, malformations, and mortality. For this study, a total of 120 chick embryos were divided into three groups, based on the length of storage before hatching (3, 7 and 10 days). Observations of the weight of chick embryo bodies, chick embryo hearts, and the level of mortality and appearance of malformations were noted. With an increase in days stored, the chick embryo’s weight decreased. The pre-incubation period had a positive effect on the weight of chick embryo, and chick hearts. Malformations, including: hydrocephalus, open body cavity and underdeveloped wings, were observed in all three groups, with the highest proportion seen in the pre-incubated hatching eggs stored for 10 days; this group also displayed the highest level of mortality. Non-pre-incubated eggs showed the most promise with better results in all experimental groups. In conclusion, the research suggests the optimal storage for chick embryos to be 3 days, with lowest levels of mortality, malformations and limited effects on the body and heart weight.

Open access

Angelo Pelloni, Francesca Del Signore, Giovanni Aste, Silvia Zordan, Angela De Magistris, Francesco Simeoni, Domenico Praino, Diana Bertoncello and Massimo Vignoli

Abstract

The goal of this study was to report the first case of antral stenosis in a cat. We have described a clinical case of a 9 months old domestic shorthaired cat referred for persistent and refractory vomiting, anorexia and loss of weight. Ultrasound (US) examination detected a mild gastric distension, mild wall thickening (5mm), severe serosal irregularities and a constriction between the fundus and body. Computed tomography (CT) was then performed: a severe gastric stenosis between the body and antrum with minimum contrast transit was detected and confirmed by flexible endoscopic examination. The antral localization of the stenosis was revealed after a cranial celiotomy and Y-U plastic was necessary to correct the defect. The patient completely recovered after surgery with significant body weight gain and remained in remission throughout a 2-years follow-up. While in human medicine there is evidence of acquired antral stenosis, no information is available about the same lesion in the feline species. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of antral stenosis in cats.

Open access

Marcin Gołyński, Michał Metyk, Piotr Szkodziak, Krzysztof Lutnicki, Grzegorz Kalisz, Marcin Szczepanik, Piotr Wilkołek and Piotr Dobrowolski

Abstract

Introduction: Thyroid hormones play a major role in the regulation of testicular maturation and growth and in the control of Sertoli and Leydig cell functions in adulthood. When naturally occurring, hypothyroidism causes male hypogonadotropic hypogonadism and Sertoli cell function disorders, but when iatrogenic and methimazole-induced its influence on the pituitary-testicular axis function with respect to Sertoli cells is poorly known.

Material and Methods: Male adult Wistar rats (n = 14) were divided into two groups: E – taking methimazole orally for 60 days, and C – control animals. After 60 d, the concentrations in serum of testosterone, follicle-stimulating and luteinising hormones, and inhibins A and B were measured. Testicles were examined morphologically: the apoptotic Sertoli cell percentage (ASC%) and number of these cells functional per tubular mm2 (FSCN/Tmm2) were calculated.

Results: In group E, inhibin A was higher while inhibin B was lower than in group C. ASC% was higher and FSCN/Tmm2 lower in group E than in group C.

Conclusion: A specific modulation of Sertoli cell function in the course of methimazole-induced hypothyroidism leads to a simultaneous concentration increase in inhibin A and decrease in B. Inhibin A might share responsibility for pituitary-testicular axis dysfunction and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism in this model of hypothyroidism.

Open access

Hanna Różańska, Aleksandra Lewtak-Piłat, Maria Kubajka and Marcin Weiner

Abstract

Introduction: The aim of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of enterococci in inflammatory secretions from mastitic bovine udders and to assess their antimicrobial resistance.

Material and Methods: A total of 2,000 mastitic milk samples from cows were tested in 2014–2017. The isolation of enterococci was performed by precultivation in buffered peptone water, selective multiplication in a broth with sodium azide and cristal violet, and cultivation on Slanetz and Bartley agar. The identification of enterococci was carried out using Api rapid ID 32 strep kits. The antimicrobial susceptibility was evaluated using the MIC technique.

Results: Enterococci were isolated from 426 samples (21.3%). Enterococcus faecalis was the predominant species (360 strains), followed by E. faecium (35 isolates), and small numbers of others. The highest level of resistance was observed to lincomycin, tetracycline, quinupristin/dalfopristin (Synercid), erythromycin, kanamycin, streptomycin, chloramphenicol, and tylosin. Single strains were resistant to vancomycin and ciprofloxacin. All isolates were sensitive to daptomycin. E. faecalis presented a higher level of resistance in comparison to E. faecium, except to nitrofurantoin.

Conclusion: The results showed frequent occurrence of enterococci in mastitic cow’s milk and confirmed the high rate of their antimicrobial resistance.

Open access

Dragan Glamočić, Miroslava Polovinski Horvatović, Igor Jajić, Saša Krstović and Darko Guljaš

Abstract

Silage made from the whole-plant maize is one of the most popular forages in Serbia. Consumption of maize silage by cows can be up to 30-35 kg/day. In Serbia in the few last years in the focus of the public and agriculture community were two mycotoxins, aflatoxin B1 and its metabolite aflatoxin M1 due to the outbreak of contaminated maize which affected the Balkans in 2012. Maize is regularly checked on the occurrence of aflatoxin B1, however forages are often neglected as a potential source of mycotoxins in the nutrition of dairy cattle.

In this work, 48 samples of maize silage were analyzed for the occurrence of aflatoxin B1, ochratoxin A and zearalenone. Samples were collected from three regions (Bačka, Banat and Srem) in Vojvodina. In all samples, at least one mycotoxin above the limit of quantification was measured. Aflatoxin B1 was detected in 36 (75%) samples. In two samples from Banat, the concentration of aflatoxin B1 exceeded the maximum level (ML) set by Serbian regulation (30 µg/kg at moisture content of 12%). In seven samples, the concentration of aflatoxin B1 was above 20 µg/kg which is the EU regulated ML. Average concentration of ochratoxin A was 10.4 µg/kg, while the maximum measured value was 34.3 µg/kg. Maximum zearalenone content in all samples was 538 µg/kg while the average zearalenone concentration was 138 µg/kg.

The results from this research point out that mycotoxin contaminated silage in the region of Vojvodina, Serbia can significantly contribute to daily intake of aflatoxin B1 in dairy cattle.

Open access

Anna Śmiech, Wojciech Łopuszyński, Brygida Ślaska, Kamila Bulak and Agnieszka Jasik

Abstract

Introduction: Breed predisposition to cutaneous mast cell tumours (MCT) in a population of dogs in Poland affected by various skin tumours was assessed, and the distribution of MCT characteristics such as histological grading, sex, age, and location, in predisposed breeds was evaluated.

Material and Methods: The retrospective epidemiological study included 550 dogs affected by cutaneous MCTs with a reference group of 2,557 dogs diagnosed with other skin tumours.

Results: A univariable logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the odds ratios (ORs) with 95% confidence intervals. The risk of high-grade MCTs was the highest for Shar-Peis (OR: 26.394) and American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.897). Boxers (OR: 6.619), Labrador Retrievers (OR: 2.630), French Bulldogs (OR: 2.050), Golden Retrievers (OR: 1.949), and American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.592) were mainly affected by low-grade MCTs. The high risk of MCT was calculated to be at the age of 4–6 years for Labrador Retrievers (OR: 2.686) and 7–10 years for Boxers (OR: 2.956) and French Bulldogs (OR: 9.429). MCTs were significantly more often located on the trunk in French Bulldogs (OR: 4.680), American Staffordshire Terriers (OR: 2.520), and Labrador Retrievers (OR: 1.948). There was no statistically significant correlation between gender and the occurrence of MCTs in the breeds.

Conclusions: The breed-predicated differences in the clinical course of MCTs suggest a genetic background for the tumours.

Open access

Sebastian Słodki and Joanna Bogucka

Abstract

For many years, scientists have been pursuing research on skeletal muscle ageing both in humans and animals. Studies on animal models have extended our knowledge of this mechanism in humans. Most researchers agree that the major processes of muscle ageing occur in the mitochondria as the major energy production centres in muscle cells. It is believed that decisive changes occur at the enzymatic activity level as well as in protein synthesis and turnover ability. Deregulation of ion channels and oxidative stress also play significant roles. In particular, in recent years the free radical theory of ageing has undergone considerable modification; researchers are increasingly highlighting the partly positive effects of free radicals on processes occurring in cells. In addition, the influence of diet and physical activity on the rate of muscle cell ageing is widely debated as well as the possibility of delaying it through appropriate physical exercise and diet programmes. Numerous studies, especially those related to genetic processes, are still being conducted, and in the near future the findings could provide valuable information on muscle ageing. The results of ongoing research could answer the perennial question of whether and how we can influence the rate of ageing both in animals and humans.

Open access

Inês Jovanir Fernandes Müller, Mayra Ribeiro Vissotto, Letícia Cardoso Bittencourt, Thais Eliana Riffel, Fernanda Lima Kaiser, Sabrina Palma Castro and Gustavo Rafael Hermes

Abstract

The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of supplementation of organic minerals on the productive performance and bone quality of broilers from 1 to 21 days of age and the intestinal health in situations of enteric challenge from 21 to 28 days of age. In a completely randomized design, with two treatments composed for minerals as sulfate and Carbo-Amino-Phospho-Chelate (CAPC), a total of 900 male broiler chicks were allocated to nine replicates and 18 experimental units with 50 birds each. 640 birds at 21 days of age were transferred to experimental cages and distributed in a completely randomized design, in factorial 2 × 2 (minerals as sulfate and CAPC × with and without enteric challenge), obtaining 4 treatments with 16 replicates and 10 birds each. In the same day of change, the group of challenged broilers received a commercial vaccine for coccidiosis that covers the Eimeria sp. At 7 days, the supplementation with CAPC minerals resulted in higher (p<0.05) weight gain and better feed conversion in relation to the inorganic source. The deposition of minerals evaluated in the tibia of broilers was not influenced (p>0.05) by the source of minerals, with the exception of Cu and Mn, whose deposition was greater (p<0.05) in the bones of poultries supplemented with inorganic source of minerals. There was higher (p<0.05) length and width of the villi and increase in the ratio villus: crypt in response to the intestinal spoliation with CAPC supplementation when compared to the inorganic source.

Open access

Nora Mimoune, Rachid Kaidi, Mohammed Hocine Benaissa, Mohamed Wail Bahouh, Ratiba Baazizi and Mohamed Yassine Azzouz

Abstract

The aim of this study was to carry out the metabolic profile comparison between follicular fluid and serum in normal cows and those affected by ovarian cysts (OC). After slaughtering, blood samples and follicular fluids from normal and cystic animals were collected and assayed using commercial kits to determine the concentrations of metabolites (glucose, total protein, total cholesterol, cortisol, triglycerides, urea, creatinine and insulin) and the liver enzymes activity. Data showed that OC were characterized by low levels of glucose, total protein, cholesterol and cortisol in cystic fluid, while urea concentrations were high compared to normal follicular fluid (P<0.001). On the other hand, serum assays of cystic animals revealed very low values of insulin and urea, whereas cortisol levels were relatively high in comparison with the serum of normal cows (P<0.001). Significant correlations between the serum and follicular fluid concentrations of normal cows were found for glucose (r=0.49), total cholesterol (r=0.31), cortisol (r=0.38) and total protein (r=0.63). The highest correlation was found for urea (r=0.86). On contrary, weak correlations were observed between metabolites concentrations in cystic fluid and in serum for normal and cystic cows. In conclusion, OC grow and persist in a metabolic environment, which differs from follicular fluid to blood. These changes may act together and/or separately to ensure the continuous development of OC. To understand a part of the mechanism, the authors propose a deep study about blood-follicle-barrier.

Open access

Zoran Stanimirović, Uroš Glavinić, Marko Ristanić, Nevenka Aleksić, Nemanja Jovanović, Branislav Vejnović and Jevrosima Stevanović

Abstract

Colony losses, including those induced by the colony collapse disorder, are an urgent problem of contemporary apiculture which has been capturing the attention of both apiculturists and the research community. CCD is characterized by the absence of adult dead bees in the hive in which few workers and a queen remain, the ratio between the brood quantity and the number of workers is heavily disturbed in favor of the former, and more than enough food is present. Robbing behavior and pests usually attacking the weakened colony do not occur. In the present paper, the causes of the emergence of this problem are discussed, as well as the measures of its prevention.

The following factors, which lead to colony losses, are analyzed: shortage of high-quality food (pollen and honey); infestation with parasites, primarily with Varroa destructor, and mixed virus infections; bacterial infections (American and European foulbrood), fungal infections (nosemosis and ascosphaerosis) and trypanosomal infections (lotmariosis); and, finally, general management of the apiary.

Certain preventive measures are proposed: (1) providing ample high-quality forage and clean water, (2) avoiding sugarisation, i.e. superfluous use of sugar syrup, (3) meeting the nutritional needs of the colony, (4) when feeding bees, taking care of the timing and the composition of diet, avoiding pure sugar syrup which in excessive quantities may induce energetic and oxidative stress, (5) when there is a shortage of natural feed – honey in the brood chamber – use sugar syrup with natural/artificial supplements to avoid protein starvation, (6) organized control of V. destructor in the colonies is obligatory due to its vector role, and (7) compliance with hygienic and sanitary measures and principles of good apiculture practice and management in apiaries. To conclude, all preventive measures are feasible in compliance with rules and regulations concerning regular spring and autumn bee health monitoring by licensed veterinarians, who can propose adequate treatments if necessary.