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Open access

Sati Akbaba, Jan Tobias Oelmann-Avendano, Tilman Bostel, Harald Rief, Nils Henrik Nicolay, Juergen Debus, Katja Lindel and Robert Foerster

Abstract

Background

We analyzed long-term quality of life (QoL) and prognostic factors for QoL as well as clinical outcome in patients with advanced cervical cancer (ACC) treated with primary radiochemotherapy (RChT) consisting of external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) with or without sequential or simultaneous integrated boost (SIB) to the parametria, intracavitary brachytherapy and concomitant chemotherapy (ChT).

Patients and methods

Eighty-three women were treated with primary RChT between 2008 and 2014. Survival of all patients was calculated and prognostic factors for survival were assessed in univariate and multivariate analysis. In 31 patients QoL was assessed in median 3 years (range 2–8 years) after treatment. QoL was compared to published normative data and the influence of age, tumour stage, treatment and observed acute toxicities was analyzed.

Results

Thirty-six patients (43.4%) died, 18 (21.7%) had a local recurrence and 24 (28.9%) had a distant progression. Parametrial boost (p = 0.027) and ChT (p = 0.041) were independent prognostic factors for overall survival in multivariate analysis. Specifically, a parametrial equivalent doses in 2-Gy fractions (EQD2) > 50 Gy was associated with an improved overall survival (OS) (p = 0.020), but an EQD2 > 53 Gy did not further improve OS (p = 0.194). Tumour size was the only independent prognostic factor for local control (p = 0.034). Lymph node status (p = 0.038) and distant metastases other than in paraaortic lymph nodes (p = 0.002) were independent prognostic factors for distant progressionfree survival. QoL was generally inferior to the reference population. Age only correlated with menopausal symptoms (p = 0.003). The degree of acute gastrointestinal (p = 0.038) and genitourinary (p = 0.041) toxicities correlated with the extent of chronic symptom experience. Sexual/vaginal functioning was reduced in patients with larger tumours (p = 0.012). Parametrial EQD2 > 53 Gy correlated with reduced sexual/vaginal functioning (p = 0.009) and increased sexual worry (p = 0.009). Whether parametrial dose escalation was achieved by sequential boost or SIB, did not affect survival or QoL.

Conclusions

Primary RChT is an effective treatment, but long-term QoL is reduced. The degree of acute side effects of RChT correlates with the extent of chronic symptoms. Patients benefit from parametrial SIB or sequential boost, but an EQD2 > 53 Gy does not further improve survival and negatively affects QoL.

Open access

Danijela Golo, Jasna But-Hadzic, Franc Anderluh, Erik Brecelj, Ibrahim Edhemovic, Ana Jeromen, Mirko Omejc, Irena Oblak, Ajra Secerov-Ermenc and Vaneja Velenik

Abstract

Background

The purpose of the study was to improve treatment efficacy for locally advanced rectal cancer (LARC) by shifting half of adjuvant chemotherapy preoperatively to one induction and two consolidation cycles.

Patients and methods

Between October 2011 and April 2013, 66 patients with LARC were treated with one induction chemotherapy cycle followed by chemoradiotherapy (CRT), two consolidation cycles, surgery and three adjuvant capecitabine cycles. Radiation doses were 50.4 Gy for T2-3 and 54 Gy for T4 tumours in 1.8 Gy daily fraction. The doses of concomitant and neo/adjuvant capecitabine were 825 mg/m2/12h and 1250mg/m2/12h, respectively. The primary endpoint was pathologic complete response (pCR).

Results

Forty-three (65.1%) patients were treated according to protocol. The compliance rates for induction, consolidation, and adjuvant chemotherapy were 98.5%, 93.8% and 87.3%, respectively. CRT was completed by 65/66 patients, with G ≥ 3 non-hematologic toxicity at 13.6%. The rate of pCR (17.5%) was not increased, but N and the total-down staging rates were 77.7% and 79.3%, respectively. In a median follow-up of 55 months, we recorded one local relapse (LR) (1.6%). The 5-year disease-free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) rates were 64.0% (95% CI 63.89–64.11) and 69.5% (95% CI 69.39–69.61), respectively.

Conclusions

In LARC preoperative treatment intensification with capecitabine before and after radiotherapy is well tolerated, with a high compliance rate and acceptable toxicity. Though it does not improve the local effect, it achieves a high LR rate, DFS, and OS.

Open access

Andrej Aleksander Kansky, Vojko Didanovic, Tadej Dovsak, Bozana Loncar Brzak, Ivica Pelivan and Diana Terlevic

Abstract

Background

Among the diseases of oral mucosa, malignant tumors are the most dangerous, but not the most common lesions that might appear in the oral cavity. Since most of the studies are focused on the detection of cancer in the oral cavity, we were interested in detecting the frequency of benign changes of the oral mucosa in Slovene population. Oral mucosal lesions are important pointer of oral health and quality of life, especially in elderly. The prevalence of oral mucosal lesions, together with information on the risk habits associated with oral health, such as tobacco and alcohol use, can help in planning future oral health studies and screening programs.

Patients and methods

Survey upon oral mucosal lesions was conducted during the national project for oral cancer screening in spring 2017 in the Slovenia in which more than 50% of dentists participated and 2395 patients (904 men and 1491 women) were included.

Results

Clinical examination, which was conducted according to the WHO standards revealed that 645 patients (27%) had oral mucosal lesions. The ten most common oral lesions detected were fibroma, gingivitis, Fordyce spots, white coated tongue, cheek biting, linea alba, denture stomatitis, geographic tongue, recurrent aphthous ulcerations and lichen planus.

Conclusions

Overall, these epidemiological data suggest need for specific health policies for prevention, diagnosis and treatment of oral mucosal lesions.

Open access

Igor Kocijancic, Jernej Vidmar and Marko Kastelic

Abstract

Background

Pleural effusion remains largely unexplored in patients with pulmonary embolism and concurrent pulmonary infarction. The aim of the study was to investigate the relationship between the size of pulmonary infarction and pleural effusion as well as the time course of pleural effusion in patients with pulmonary infarction.

Patients and methods

Data from 103 patients with pulmonary infarction was retrospectively analysed along with patient comorbidities, size of pulmonary infarction, presence and size of pleural effusion with the time between the onset of clinical symptoms of pulmonary infarction and CT study.

Results

Assessment of possible correlations between the size of pulmonary infarction and age revealed a significant negative correlation. There was a highly significant difference (p = 0.005) in the mean size of pulmonary infarction in patients with effusion (34.5 cm3) compared to those without it (14.3 cm3), but the size of the effusion had no correlation with the size of pulmonary infarction. The size of the effusion peaked between 4th–5th day after the onset of clinical symptoms of pulmonary infarction. In the first 5 days after the onset of clinical symptoms of pulmonary infarction a significant correlation was found between the size of the effusion and time with approximation of 1.3 mm/12 h.

Conclusions

The data shows that patients with a pleural effusion are more likely to have a larger pulmonary infarction than those without it. If present, the effusion can be expected to increase in a relatively slow linear fashion in the first 5 days after the onset of clinical symptoms of pulmonary infarction.

Open access

Tanja Marinko

Abstract

Background

Breast cancer is the second most common cancer worldwide. Thanks to the modern oncological treatments, disease specific survival has improved throughout the last decades. The number of breast cancer survivors has been increasing, and more and more attention has been paid to the breast cancer treatment side effects. Whereas there are many data regarding ischemic heart disease after radiotherapy for breast cancer, there is not much data in the literature about the incidence and clinical meaning of pericardial disease after breast cancer radiotherapy.

Conclusions

Although radiation-induced pericarditis is the earliest form of radiation-induced cardiovascular disease after irradiation of the heart, it seems that in clinical practice, especially by using modern radiotherapy treatment techniques, it is underdiagnosed because patients are mostly asymptomatic. In some cases, especially in its late form and after multimodal systemic oncological treatment in combination with radiotherapy, it could be presented in severe form and life threatening. Treatment modalities for radiation-induced pericardial diseases are the same as in the non-irradiated population, but in the irradiated patients, surgery may be difficult.

Open access

Ioana Radu, Anamaria Victoria Bumbu, Lucian Croitorescu and Laura Chinezu

ABSTRACT

Introduction: Cardiac fibroma is a rare benign tumor, although it is considered the second most frequent cardiac tumor in children. It is located in the ventricular myocardium, frequently in the interventricular septum. One third of the cases are asymptomatic, being discovered postmortem. Case presentation: A 10-year-old male child accused severe dyspnea a few minutes before its sudden death. Autopsy examination revealed hypertrophic cardiomegaly, the entire left ventricular wall being replaced by an enlarged tumor mass. On histopathological examination, the tumor was diagnosed as cardiac fibroma. Conclusions: Noninvasive examinations during childhood, such as cardiac ultrasound, increase the early detection of the tumors of the heart, decreasing the number of sudden death cases in young patients, especially children.

Open access

Monica Marton-Popovici

Open access

Előd Etele Élthes, Alexandra Lavinia Cozlea and Árpád Török

ABSTRACT

Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the factors associated with increased mortality in patients with acute mesenteric ischemia, emphasizing the importance of an early diagnosis and a prompt surgical intervention in order to avoid lesion progression. Materials and method: A retrospective analytical study was conducted on a study population of 50 male and female patients with acute ischemia of the mesenteric arteries, aged between 36-92 years. Demographic and pathological history characteristics were assessed, together with presented symptoms, laboratory and CT findings, as well as surgical outcome and time-related aspects between presentation in the emergency department and time of surgery, as well as the hospitalization period until discharge or death. Results: Muscular defense (OR = 23.05) and shock (OR = 13.24) as symptoms were strongly associated with a poor prognosis, while elevated values of lactate dehydrogenase (p = 0.0440) and creatine kinase (p = 0.0025) were associated with higher death rates. The time elapsed during investigations in the emergency room was significantly higher in patients who deceased (p = 0.0023), similarly to the total time from the onset of symptoms to the beginning of surgery (p = 0.0032). Surgical outcomes showed that patients with segmental ischemia of the small bowel had significantly higher chances of survival (p <0.0001). Conclusion: Increased mortality rates in patients presenting in the emergency department for acute mesenteric ischemia were observed in patients with occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery, with higher levels of CK and LDH, as well as with longer periods of stay in the emergency department for diagnostic procedures until the commencement of the surgical intervention. Therefore, proper investigations in a timely manner followed by a specific and prompt surgical intervention may avoid unfavorable evolution of patients towards death.

Open access

Niklas F. Boeder, Oliver Dörr, Wiebke Rutsatz, Timm Bauer and Holger M. Nef

ABSTRACT

We describe the case of a 68-year-old patient who was admitted to the trauma unit with anisocoria after pre-hospital resuscitation upon loss of consciousness. An intracranial bleeding was ruled out. The patient was admitted to the cardiology ward with the initial diagnosis of a syncope due to myocarditis, as myocardial necrosis markers were slightly elevated. The suspicion of an acute aortic dissection (AAD) was raised when the patient developed kidney failure and a progressive aortic regurgitation. He underwent emergency surgery for an acute type A AAD. Renal function recovered completely and, fortunately, the patient was discharged 10 days later.

Open access

Diana Opincariu and Iulia Monica Chițu

ABSTRACT

Atrial fibrillation (AF) is an increasingly widespread healthcare problem. AF can frequently present as a complication in acute coronary syndromes (ACS), especially in ST-elevation acute myocardial infarction (AMI), in which case it is the most frequent supraventricular rhythm disturbance with an estimated incidence of 6.8-21%. The presence of AF in ACS heralds worse outcomes in comparison to subjects in sinus rhythm, and several studies have shown that in AMI patients, both new-onset and pre-existing AF are associated with a higher risk of major adverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events during hospitalization. The cause of newonset AF in AMI is multifactorial. Although still incompletely understood, the mechanisms involved in the development of AF in acute myocardial ischemic events include the neurohormonal activation of the sympathetic nervous system that accompanies the AMI, ischemic involvement of the atrial myocytes, ventricular dysfunction, and atrial overload. The identification of patients at risk for AF is of great significance as it may lead to prompt therapeutic interventions and closer follow-up, thus improving prognosis and decreasing cardiovascular and cerebrovascular events. The present manuscript aims to summarize the current research findings related to new-onset AF in AMI patients, as well as the predictors and prognostic impact of this comorbid association.