Przemysław Drzewicz, Grzegorz Nałęcz-Jawecki, Agata Drobniewska, Anna Zgadzaj, Adam Smoliński, Marcel Krzan and Anita Starzycka
The oil containing drilling waste is a worldwide environmental problem associated with oil and gas exploration. In Poland, the problem of the drilling waste has become important since starting of shale gas exploration. The results of thermal treatment of drilling waste from shale gas exploration are presented. It has been shown that organic content vaporized completely at temperature up to 500 °C. The main problem is high content of chloride, sulfate, sodium, potassium, magnesium in the waste and its water leachate. Toxicity tests confirmed that high salinity of the samples pose important risk for environment. Due to the high content of barium, the drilling waste may be utilized in production of cement with high chemical and heat resistance and opaque to X-ray. Thermal treatment process is a viable option for remediation of the drilling waste; however, the product of the process needs further treatment in order to remove its high salinity.
Studies of the efficiency of Ni, Cu and Cd cations removal from water solutions were carried out, with the use of clay limestone, hen eggshells from eggs for consumption and hen eggshells after hatching, which main element is calcium carbonate. Hen eggshells are a waste product, which can be used as a substitute of clay limestone in removing heavy metals from wet flue gas desulphurisation installation. Mixed solutions of Ni, Cu and Cd were used in the research, with the composition similar to the waste water from wet flue gas desulphurisation installation: Ni (0.009-0.053 mmol/dm3), Cu (0.008-0.057 mmol/dm3) and Cd (0.003-0.008 mmol/dm3). The metals were determined by flame atomic absorption spectrophotometry (F-AAS). Kinetics of the process was analysed and equilibrium parameters were estimated, taking into consideration changes of the solutions pH during the process duration. It was demonstrated that the dominating mechanism of cations removal is their binding in hydroxides and carbonates. The studies demonstrated comparable characteristics of hen eggshells versus clay limestone, in the context of their application in removal of heavy metal cations from solutions.
Grażyna Sakson, Marek Zawilski and Agnieszka Brzezińska
Combined sewer systems in cities are increasingly equipped with additional storage facilities or other installations necessary for keeping the wastewater treatment plants from overloading during wet weather and reducing combined sewer overflows into receiving waters. Effective methods for reducing such negative phenomena include the temporary storage of wet weather flow in an end-of-pipe separate tank or in a sewer system. In this paper, four scenarios of wastewater storage for the Group Wastewater Treatment Plant (GWWTP) in Lodz (Poland) have been analysed: a storage in a separate single tank located in GWWTP, a storage in the bypass channel in GWWTP, in-sewer storage, and a combination of the aforementioned variants, also with real time control (RTC) system introduced. The basic calculations were performed using the EPA’s SWMM software for the period of 5 years (2004-2008). The chosen solution - storage in a separate storage tank - has been verified based on the inflow dataset from the years 2009-2013. The specific volume of the separate storage tank should be at least 22 m3 per hectare of impervious catchment area, but it could be reduced if additional in-sewer storage with RTC were introduced. Both options allow the effective protection of receiving waters against discharge of untreated sewage during wet weather.
One of the essential needs for retention reservoirs is to reduce the volume of wastewater flows in sewer systems. Their main advantage is the potential to increase retention in the system, which in turn improves hydraulic safety by reducing the risk of node flooding and the emergence of the phenomenon of “urban flooding”. The increasingly common use of retention reservoirs, the observed changes in the climate and the development of dedicated software tools necessitate the updating of the methods used to dimension retention reservoirs. So far, the best known procedures in this regard involve the application of analytical formulas and tools in the hydrodynamic modelling of current sewage systems. In each case the basis for the retention facility design is the evaluation of rainfall in terms of the probability of occurrence and duration that would result in a critical rainwater flow condition in the sewer system in order to define the required reservoir retention capacity. The purpose of this paper is to analyse of the feasibility of applying artificial neural networks in the preliminary estimation of the duration of critical rainfalls. Such an application of these networks is essential to the process of hydrodynamic modelling of the system and to determining the required retention capacity of the reservoir. The study used an artificial neural network model typically used as part of planning processes, as well as the Statistica software suite.
In this study, ANN (artificial neural network) model was applied to estimate the Ni(II) removal efficiency of peanut shell based on batch adsorption tests. The effects of initial pH, metal concentrations, temperature, contact time and sorbent dosage were determined. Also, COD (chemical oxygen demand) was measured to evaluate the possible adverse effects of the sorbent during the tests performed with varying temperature, pH and sorbent dosage. COD was found as 96.21 mg/dm3 at pH 2 and 54.72 mg/dm3 at pH 7. Also, a significant increase in COD value was observed with increasing dosage of the used sorbent. COD was found as 12.48 mg/dm3 after use of 0.05 g sorbent and as 282.78 mg/dm3 after use of 1 g sorbent. During isotherm studies, the highest regression coefficient (R2) value was obtained with Freundlich isotherm (R2 = 0.97) for initial concentration and with Temkin isotherm for sorbent dosage. High pseudo-second order kinetic model regression constants were observed (R2 = 0.95-0.99) during kinetic studies with varying pH values. In addition, Ni(II) ion adsorption on peanut shell was further defined with pseudo-second order kinetic model, since qe values in the second order kinetic equation were very close to the experimental values. The relation between the estimated results of the built ANN model and the experimental results were used to evaluate the success of ANN modeling. Consequently, experimental results of the study were found to be in good agreement with the estimated results of the model.
Industrial waste deposited in landfills poses a threat to the environment and can cause its deterioration. The physical and chemical processes that result in the formation of a number of harmful substances occur in the mass of stored waste. When released to the environment these compounds can be dangerous to all its elements, especially to groundwater. The monitoring of landfill impact plays an important role in assessing the state of the environment. It allows us to follow what changes take place in the waste bed itself, and in particular elements of the environment. On the basis of long-term monitoring studies (conducted in the years 1995-2016), the quality of groundwater around the industrial waste landfill in Zgierz was determined and its impact on the environment was characterized. The quality of conducted monitoring was assessed in relation to the current regulations. Analysis of the results of groundwater quality tests confirms that the industrial landfill in the operational phase due to a number of applied security measures has not contributed to the deterioration of groundwater quality. In the post-operational phase, groundwater contamination is observed, and consequently irreversible changes occur in the environment. The negative impact of the landfill can be due to the disruption of sealing layers and elution of pollutants from the waste by rainwater. The landfill site monitoring plays a key role in assessing causal relationships occurring between the state of the landfill and elements of the environment in its vicinity.
Wael S. El-Tohamy, Samar N. ABDEL-Baki, Nagwa E. Abdel-Aziz and Abdel-Aziz A. Khidr
The objective of this study is to reveal the spatial and temporal variations of surface water quality in this part of the River Nile with respect to heavy metals pioneerution. Seventeen parameters in total were monitored at seven sites on a monthly basis from October 2013 to September 2014. The dataset was treated using the tools of univariate and multivariate statistical analyses. Cluster analysis showed three different groups of similarity between the sampling sites reflecting the variability in physicochemical characteristics and pollution levels of the study area. Six PCs factors were identified as responsible for the data structure explaining 91 % of the total variance. These were eutrophication factor (23.2 %), physicochemical factor (20.6 %), nutrients (16.3 %) and three additional factors, affected by alkalinity and heavy metals, recorded variance less than 15 % each. Also, the heavy metals pollution index (HPI) revealed that most of the calculated values were below the critical index limit of 100. However, two higher values (124.89 and 133.11) were calculated at sites V and VI during summer due to the temperature and increased run-off in the river system.
This work refers to the modelling of heat transfer in horizontal ground heat exchangers. For different conditions of collecting heat from the ground and different boundary condition profiles of temperature in the ground were found, and temporal variations of heat flux transferred between the ground surface and its interior were determined. It was taken into account that this flux results from several different mechanisms of heat transfer: convective, radiative, and that connected with moisture evaporation. It was calculated that ground temperature at great depths is greater than the average annual ambient temperature.
Lech Wojciech Szajdak, Wioletta Gaca, Jürgen Augustin and Teresa Meysner
The Typic Hapludalfs soils under two old shelterbelts (200 years old) Robinia pseudacacia and Crataegus monogyna, multi species of trees (young shelterbelt - 20 years old) and neighbouring cultivated fields were investigated. The function of shelterbelts of different age and plant composition in agricultural landscape and estimation of biochemical and chemical soil conditions for the decrease of greenhouse gases release from soil to the atmosphere was the aim of the research. In soils under shelterbelts were estimated activities of several enzymes participating in the oxidation-reduction processes, ferric and ferrous ions and the evolutions of gases like N2, N2O, CO2, and CH4. The soils under old shelterbelts characterized higher peroxidase activity than in young shelterbelt and adjoining cultivated fields. However, no significant differences were observed for nitrate reductase activity between old and young shelterbelts. There were proved differences between emission of N2O in soils under shelterbelts and in adjoining cultivated fields. Furthermore, it was observed significant effect of the young shelterbelt on the decrease of carbon dioxide release than in the adjoining cultivated field. The manipulation of the landscape through the introduction of shelterbelts of different age and the composition of plants leads to the modification of biogeochemical soil conditions for N2O and N2 formation and finally decrease of the greenhouse gases evolution from soils to the atmosphere. Thus the creation of new shelterbelts is favourable factor for agricultural landscape.
The aim of this study was to develop an effective thermochemical method for treatment of industrial hemp, in order to increase its bioconversion to biofuels and bio-products. Industrial hemp was subjected to various thermochemical pretreatments using: alkaline (3 % NaOH), oxidative (3 % H2O2 at pH 11.5) and glycerol-based methods (70-90 % of glycerol, 1-3 % NaOH), prior to enzymatic hydrolysis with Cellic® CTec2/Cellic® HTec2 (15 FPU∙g−1 glucan). Innovative pretreatment with glycerol fraction (80 % glycerol content, 2 % NaOH, 12.5 % biomass loading) showed to be superior over commonly used alkaline and oxidative methods with respect to by-products generation and sugar losses. Integrated process of ethanol production from enriched cellulose fraction (172 kg EtOH∙Mg−1 of dry hemp) and succinic production from xylose-rich residue after ethanol fermentation (59 kg∙Mg−1 of dry hemp) allowed to convert about 97 % of sugars released (glucose and xylose) during enzymatic hydrolysis of pre-treated biomass. The present study showed that it is possible to replace 50 % of the costly yeast extract, used during succinic fermentation as nitrogen source, by alternative nitrogen source (rapeseed cakes) without significant deterioration of succinic yield. Pretreatment liquor after lignin precipitation (52 kg∙Mg−1 of biomass treated) exhibited a high biodegradability (92 %) and allowed to produce 420 m3 CH4/Mg VS). Results obtained in this study clearly document the possibility of biofuels (bioethanol, biogas) and bio-chemicals production from industrial hemp, in a biorefinery approach.