Zofia Nizioł-Łukaszewska, Tomasz Bujak, Tomasz Wasilewski and Edyta Szmuc
Jerusalem artichoke (Helianthus tuberosus) and chicory (Cichorium intybus) are valuable pharmaceutical raw materials on account of their high content of inulin, a natural prebiotic. Inulin-rich plants are also increasingly employed in the formulation of cosmetic products. The paper presents the biological properties of aqueous and aqueous-ethanolic extracts of Jerusalem artichoke and chicory. The extracts have been found to have a high free radical scavenging ability, with the most beneficial antioxidant properties being observed for the aqueous-ethanolic extract of Jerusalem artichoke. Inulin isolated from both plant types is a safe and non-toxic raw material. Inulin added to model body wash gel formulations markedly reduces their potential to cause skin irritation and sensitization.
The objective of the study was to develop a steady-state system model in Aspen TECH using user-defined subroutines to predict the SOFC electrochemical performance. In order to achieve high overall fuel utilization and thus high electrical efficiency, a concept of Combined Heat and Power system with two-stage SOFC stacks of different number of cells was analyzed. The concept of two-stage SOFC stacks based system was developed in the framework of the FP7 EU-funded project STAGE-SOFC. The model was validated against data gathered during the operation of the proof-of-concept showing good agreement with the comparative simulation data. Following model validation, further simulations were performed for different values of fuel utilization to analyze its influence on system electrical performance. Simulation results showed that the concept of two-stage SOFC stacks configuration was viable and reliable. The model can be useful for development the optimal control strategy for system under safe conditions.
Damian Milde, Leszek Urbańczyk, Marcin Figura and Wojciech Piś
The polyphosphoric acids (PPA) were synthesized in a cascade reactors system from P2O5 obtained from the burning of Kazakh phosphorus. Presented system provides guidelines for the PPA production process using phosphoric acids only at concentrations above 100% (in conversion to H3PO4). Polyphosphoric acids are processed in a cascade reactors system, where the in 1st concentration of PPA is increased by addition of P2O5, while in the 2nd reactor PPA is diluted with the use of 85% phosphoric acid. Produced PPA can be obtained in the 100–118% range and is characterized by high chemical purity due to the reduction of the corrosivity of the reaction, which results in very low content of iron (below 2 ppm Fe).
Junyi Hu, Aiqiang Guo, Yingqian Xu, Changsheng Pan, Xingfu Wei, Longlong Wang and Guoyong Xiao
α-Damascone is widely used in perfumes. However, the manufacture of α-damascone remains challenging owing to the limitations of current production processes. Herein, α-damascone was successfully synthesized from α-ionone using a new route involving only four steps, namely oximization, epoxidation, dehydration, and reduction. The total yield was 54.9% with a final chemical purity of 97% (by GC). Only water, cyclohexane, and ethanol were used in the reactions except in the purification step, and all solvents could be recycled. The structures of the intermediates and target compound were identified by 1H NMR and 13C NMR analyses and MS experiments. This route is a simple and successful method for the industrial preparation of α-damascone.
Maciej Mrówka, Tomasz Machoczek, Paweł Jureczko, Małgorzata Szymiczek, Magdalena Skonieczna and Łukasz Marcoll
The purpose of the conducted study was to analyse new materials intended for contact with the human body in view of their physical, chemical and biological properties. The authors have put to test six commercially available materials, four out of which were composite polyamide 12-based materials, while two were polyurethanes. The examined materials were assessed in terms of the surface. Subsequently, their hardness and biocompatibility were tested. The authors devoted major attention to the tests of absorption and emissivity of water, the pH = 7.4 PBS buffer solution and pH = 4.3 artificial sweat in temperatures of 21°C and 37°C. The results of the tests have confirmed the non-toxicity of all the tested materials and allowed to provide their characteristics in terms of their surface, hardness, as well as absorption and emissivity of various body fluids. Both polyamide 12 and the tested polyurethanes are classified as thermoplastics that may be used in additive technology.
Wioletta Drożdż, Hanna Boruczkowska, Tomasz Boruczkowski, Ewa Tomaszewska-Ciosk and Ewa Zdybel
Fruit and vegetable processing by-products, undervalued until recently, are rich sources of nutrients. This study investigated properties of extruded corn puffs with addition (5–20%) of blackcurrant or chokeberry pressings. We assessed expansion rate, water absorption index (WAI) and water solubility index (WSI) of the produced extru-dates, the concentration of polyphenols, and antioxidant activity measured by FRAP method and ABTS method. The puffs with addition of chokeberry pressings had higher WSI values, higher phenolic acids, flavonols, and anthocyanins content, and higher antioxidant activity than puffcorn with addition of blackcurrant pressings. The corn puffs with addition of fruit pressings contained much higher concentrations of phenolic compounds and were characterized by much higher antioxidant activity than pure puffcorn. This confirms the usefulness of addition of such fruit processing by-products in order to manufacture functional food.
Ahmad Nawaz, Bilal Islam, M. Zafar Ijaz, Umar Saleem, M. Sadiq Khattak, Shahid Nisar Ahmad, Nabeel Maqsood and Liaquat Ali
We propose an indirect method of ASTM D-1200 for measurement of viscosity from 0.1 to 30 stokes (St) using Ford cup 5 (range 2~ 12 St) by developing a statistical relation. General purpose low styrene content polyester resin (without adding initiator, hardener and accelerator) was used for viscosity measurement. In existing ASTM D 1200 standard, ford cups (1-4) are used to measure the viscosity up to 2 St, while fifth cup is used for measurement from 2 to 12 St. Viscosity above 12 St is not estimated using existing ASTM D- 1200 method. In contrast, our method and statistical relation proposed in this paper estimates viscosity in the flexible range of 0.1 to 30 St by using Ford cup 5 only. The estimated values were confirmed by existing ASTM D-1200 (0.1 to 12 St) and by using Ubbelohde viscometer (12 to 30 St). Values estimated above 12 St are from the proposed model are also in good conformance (percentage error ~ 5% or less) with experimental results. The satisfaction level of the estimated values with the experiments suggests that the model has also the potential for application to paints, polymer and oil industry.
Nadarajan Viju, Nagarajan Ezhilraj, Chellamnadar Vaikundavasagom Sunjaiy Shankar, Stanislaus Mary Josephine Punitha and Sathianeson Satheesh
Bacteria associated with surfaces have been frequently cited as a potential source for the isolation of bioactive metabolites. In this study, bacteria associated with marine gastropod, Babylonia sp. were isolated and screened for antibacterial activity against biofilm-forming bacteria. The antibiofilm and antifouling effect of the selected surface- associated bacterial strains were examined under in vitro and in vivo conditions. Results showed that the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of the bacterial strain CML associated with gastropod species considerably reduced the adhesion of biofilm-forming bacteria on glass coupons. Besides, the antifouling coat prepared by incorporating of this EPS into polyurethane varnish prevented the settlement of biofoulers on test substratum submerged in marine waters. The functional groups present in the EPS were analyzed using FT-IR. The bacterium responsible for the production of the bioactive EPS was identified as Bacillus subtilis subsp. by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. More detailed characterization of the identified bioactive EPS could lead to the isolation of a novel natural antifouling product.
Barbora Legerská, Daniela Chmelová and Miroslav Ondrejovič
The aim of the present study was to investigate the dye decolorization ability of laccase from Trametes versicolor. Five azonaphthalene dyes (Acid Violet 7, Acid Red 1, Allura Red AC, Orange G and Sunset Yellow FCF) were used to evaluate dye decolorization. Laccase from T. versicolor is capable of decolorizing dyes, namely Acid Violet 7 (53.7±2.3 %) and Orange G (46.0±2.2 %). The less effective ability of laccase was observed at the decolorization of other selected dyes (6.9 - 18.6 %). The presence of redox mediator (1-hydroxybenzotriazole) increased decolorization percentage for all tested dyes (≥ 90.5 %). Toxic effect of azo dyes and their degradation products after laccase treatment was observed on the growth of selected bacteria (Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Pseudomonas syringae and Escherichia coli), yeasts (Candida parapsilosis and Saccharomyces cerevisiae) and algae (Chlorella vulgaris and Microcystis aeruginosa). It was confirmed that degradation products showed lower inhibition effect compared to initial dyes. These findings suggest that laccase from T. versicolor are able to decolorize and detoxify selected azonaphthalene dyes.
This study reports about simple, robust and reproducible method for simultaneous bioanalytical determination of Valsartan (VAL) and co-administered Clopidogrel bisulfate (CGB) and Fenofibrate (FEN) in raw materials, spiked human plasma and tablets using isocratic RP-HPLC method. The chromatographic separation is carried out using isocratic binary mobile phase consisting of 80 mM phosphate buffer pH 3: Acetonitrile (30: 70 %; v/v) at the flow rate of 1.1 mL/min and 33 °C. A Diode array detector at wavelength 214 nm was used. Retention times for VAL, CGB and FEN were 3.1, 5.1 and 6.4 min, respectively. The calibration curves obtained were linear over the concentration ranges of 2.5 - 100 μg/mL for both VAL and CGB and 5 -100 μg/mL for FEN. The mean extraction recoveries of VAL, CGB and FEN from spiked plasma were 75.38±1.34 %, 89.91±2.17 % and 96.92±6.02 %, respectively. The limits of detection and quantification were 0.86, 0.67, 1.11 μg/mL and 2.60, 2.03, 3.36 μg/mL for VAL, CGB and FEN, respectively. The method was applied to the analysis of these drugs in spiked human plasma and in tablets as they are commonly used as a combination for prevention of stroke. Results obtained show good accuracy, precision and acceptable recoveries from plasma samples.