The study presents the results of analysis of the possibilities of measuring equipment supervision, taking into account the requirements of the ISO 9001: 2015 standard and risk management present there. As it has been shown, it is possible to use (mentioned in point 6.1 of indicated standard) a risk management method for skilfully managing a measuring equipment. Orientation of business to risk is one of the elements of the ISO 9001 standard, which does not specify exactly how the method of its implementation should looks like. Generally, it orders to manage risk wherever goals appear. The targets also appear in the field of supervision of measuring equipment. Therefore, in the elaboration, apart from the requirements analysis, the concept of a five-stage methodology for implementing a risk-based approach to management of measurement equipment was presented. The matrix method was used to assess the risk. Within this method two elements were assessed: probability and potential effects of the risk occurrence. Application of the proposed concept may contribute to a more efficient and effective management of measuring instruments.
In the work of a dentist there are many factors that affect the occupational risk. They cover the area of the human factor, work organization and technical area. The latter often determines the safety and ergonomics of the workplace. The purpose of this article is to identify occupational hazards in the work of a dentist, with particular emphasis on the technical area. The method used in the article is a survey supported by observation with elements of a direct interview. The research tool used in the article is a questionnaire in the form of a checklist.
Here we describe a new type of environmentally sensitive insulation panels which can be used on exteri-or wall surfaces to minimize all the negative aspects of existing coating materials by taking advantage of natural rock properties. We investigate the decorative characteristics and insulation performance of this new product, obtained by applying materials from different lithologies to Expanded Polystyrene Surfaces (EPS). First, a mortar with 25% acrylic and 75% sand was applied to the EPS by a stripping method using sand size materials from various lithologies (granite, micaschist, basalt, quartzite, and pumice). To determine the optimum thickness, insulation panels containing plaster of 2, 4, 6, and 8 mm thickness were prepared for each lithology. Their thermal conductivity coefficient, bending and compressive strength were tested. Predictably, thermal conductivity coefficient yielded lowest values in 2 mm panels and highest in 8 mm panels for all lithologies. The bending strength also increased proportionaly with thickness. In the compressive strength tests, the highest values were measured for the 2 mm panels while relatively low values were obtained for the 4, 6 and 8 mm panels, except for the micaschist and basalt-based panels. As a result, basalt and pumice offer superior features in the three measured parameters, so, it is expected that different combinations of these two lithologies would offer positive features. In this context, considering its high fire resistance and low thermal conductivity coefficient perpendicular to the planar surface of muscovites, micaschist is the third lithology that can be utilized with the two materials mentioned above. Compared with previous materials, the products investigated in this study are cost effective because they reduce paint costs, application time and total building load. The geomaterials also have aesthetic appeal.
Refurbishment of worn Dies is an interesting research area which also has high economic benefit. Material which is used in PM dies for compacting powders are high carbon steel which have very low weldabilitis. Due to the high hardness, high carbon content and martensitic microstructure, these Dies are very sensitive to the thermal shock produced from fusion welding. For successfully refurbishing the worn Dies, Fine spark deposition was used for deposition of a new layer on the cold work 1.2436 steel. Different heat inputs were used for deposition of nickel based material and finally microstructure and HAZ were studied. Results show the HAZ area is very narrow, free from cracks and HAZ microstructure is similar to the base metal. GTAW welding using same filler metal induced many cracks in HAZ of weld which is detrimental to the refurbished Die performance. Results show increasing heat input in Fine spark deposition can results in crack formation in HAZ even if the weld pool does not occurred in base metal. However these cracks are much smaller than those occurred in GTAW.
Ilmārs Ozoliņš, Ēriks Ozoliņš and Valērija Fedotova
The paper presents a method of calculation gas turbine engine compressor or low-pressure turbine working blade profile for student training. This method of calculation was prepared for working blades with and without shroud shelves. This method provides a calculation technique to reduce the load on blade root part and the determination of blade profile stress distribution and the comparison before and after reduction of load.
Abdolali Fayyaz, Norhamidi Muhamad and Abu Bakar Sulong
This research was focused on mixing of submicron cemented carbide (WC-Co-VC) powder and binder. WC-Co-VC powder particle size and morphology were analyzed by laser diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy. The WC-Co-VC powder was kneaded with a paraffin wax based binder system. Based on critical solid loading, the feedstock with different solid loadings between 49 to 51 vol.% was prepared. Finally, the flow behavior of different feedstocks was investigated. Morphology of powder revealed that the particles of powder are slightly agglomerated and irregular in shape. The result of mixing indicted that the torque value increases as the solid loading increase from 49 vol.% to 51 vol.%. The feedstock exhibited homogeneity and the powder particles are homogenously coated with binder. The feedstock with solid loading of 51 vol.% is sensitive to temperature and showed high viscosity values. The feedstock with solid loadings of 49 and 50 vol.% had good compatibility and flow characteristics.
The composite based on the microns iron size powder and MgO nanopowder was prepared using pressing followed by conventional and microwave sintering. Microstructure of the composite was investigated to evaluate the changes induced by different sintering technology. Young’s modulus, flexural strength and hardness of composites were analyzed to investigate the mechanical properties in dependence on MgO content, as well as in dependence on the sintering method. Microstructure and mechanical properties as well as functional magnetic properties of prepared composites are discussed in the paper. The main benefit of microwave heating found within process time shortening was confirmed in the case of the microwave sintered Fe/MgO composite.
Raquel de Oro Calderon, Maryam Jaliliziyaeian, John Dunkley, Christian Gierl-Mayer and Herbert Danninger
The Masteralloy (MA) alloying route has a great potential for reducing the alloying costs in sintered steels, while allowing the introduction of innovative alloying systems. However, in order to achieve an efficient use of the alloying elements, the particle sizes needed are often below 25 µm, which means that for standard gas atomization a significant fraction of the batch has to be discarded or at least recycled. This work evaluates the performance of steels containing MA powders obtained with a novel atomization technique (Ultra-High-Pressure Water atomization) that allows the production of low-cost powders with low oxygen contents, rounded morphologies and mean particle sizes as low as 6 microns. Mechanical properties, dimensional variations and interstitial contents were measured in steels containing different MA compositions sintered at either 1120 °C or1250 ºC in N2-5H2 atmospheres. Already with less than 3 wt.% of alloying elements these steels present excellent combinations of properties, reaching strength levels of 560-915 MPa and hardness 220-260 HV10, combined with elongations of 1.3-3.2% and impact energies around 20-30 J/cm2.
R. Haubner, E. Rauchenwald, M. Lessiak, R. Pitonak and R. Weissenbacher
Investigations of hard and wear resistant materials have a long tradition to increase the performance and profitability of machining applications. The evolution started with WC-Co hardmetal alloys, which were produced by PM technology, followed by CVD coatings on hardmetal tools. The first CVD coatings applied were TiC, TiN and Al2O3. The properties of these coatings could be optimized by varying the crystal size, crystal orientation but also combination of the materials in multilayer systems. Nowadays, about 85% of all hardmetal tools are coated.During the last years, driven by PVD coatings showing good performance (e.g. TiAlN), the search for new CVD coatings was intensified. Medium temperature (MT) CVD processes for TiCN allowed the deposition of TiCN crystals with different composition side by side. Due to this microstructure the adhesion between single layers in new multilayer coatings like TiN/MT-TiCN/Al2O3/TiN could be increased. Novel (Ti,Al)N coatings were developed, showing a nanolamellae microstructure consisting of self-assembled (Ti,Al)N with different composition.
For the future there is still plenty to investigate. The already existing coatings and coating systems have to be optimized for the various machining applications. To find new types of CVD coatings, we look for chemical reactions practicable for its use in CVD equipment.
Due to the increasing usage of powder metallurgy (PM), there is a demand to evaluate and improve the mechanical properties of PM parts. One of the most important mechanical properties is wear behavior, especially in parts that are in contact with each other. Therefore, the choice of materials and select manufacturing parameters are very important to achieve proper wear behavior. So, prediction of wear resistance is important in PM parts. In this paper, we try to investigate and predict the wear resistance (volume loss) of PM porous steels according to the affecting factors such as: density, force and sliding distance by artificial neural network (ANN). ANN training was done by a multilayer perceptron procedure. The comparison of the results estimated by the ANN with the experimental data shows their proper matching. This issue confirms the efficiency of using method for prediction of wear resistance in PM steel parts.