Jarosław Paprocki, Marta Pawłowska, Paweł Sutkowy, Jacek Piechocki and Alina Woźniak
The activity of selected antioxidant enzymes: superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) in erythrocytes, and the concentration of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in blood plasma and erythrocytes, were determined in people subjected to hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) therapy due to sudden sensorineural hearing loss (SSNHL). Venous blood samples were taken immediately before entering the hyperbaric chamber and 5 min after leaving it. In the study group, two age subgroups were distinguished: group I consisting of subjects under 35 and group II consisting of subjects over 50. The obtained values were analysed statistically using Student’s t-test. Differences were considered as statistically significant at p < 0.05. A statistically significant decrease in the CAT activity was shown 5 min after leaving the hyperbaric chamber in pooled subjects (p < 0.01) and group I (p < 0.05). Furthermore, a statistically significant decrease in the erythrocyte TBARS concentration was observed in group II (p < 0.05). It was demonstrated that a single exposure to hyperbaric oxygen affects the oxidant-antioxidant equilibrium as evidenced by, e.g., a statistically significant decrease in the activity of catalase in erythrocytes. It is possible that the antioxidant response to HBO depends on the age of subjects.
Maciej Jerzemowski, Zbigniew Dąbrowiecki, Romuald Olszański, Piotr Siermontowski and Janusz Jerzemowski
Research shows a potential threat from external environmental factors which might be the cause of upper and lower gastrointestinal diseases in tourists, or soldiers engaged in tropical peacekeeping missions. The research includes infections which due to their spread are also present in their home countries such as Helicobacter pylori infections, viral hepatitis as well as infections which might cause symptoms of upper and lower gastrointestinal tract diseases as a result of poor sanitary and unhygienic conditions. Contact with diseases typical of the tropical climate, especially during longer stays, increases the chances of bringing some tropical diseases back to Poland, which can be problematic for the domestic health care service.
This is the first part of the material concerned with the analysis of drive systems in remotely controlled unmanned underwater vehicles. The paper discusses the problem of classification of UUVs, mainly remotely controlled, with an indication of four different approaches to this issue. Moreover, the article discusses the nomenclature used in relation to various components of the discussed drive systems and thrusters, as well as indicates the functionality of such systems along with the advantages and disadvantages of the analysed design solutions. The method of analysis of drive systems, its methodology and the results will be the subject of a subsequent publication of the authors.
This is the second part of material concerned with the analysis of drive systems in remotely controlled underwater vehicles. The first part involved the problem of classification of unmanned underwater vehicles, mainly remotely controlled, as well as the nomenclature used in relation to various components of the discussed drive systems and thrusters. The functionality of particular drive systems was discussed along with the advantages and disadvantages of the analysed design technologies. This material presents the method of conducting an analysis of drive systems, its methodology and results.
Tadeusz Doboszyński, Bogdan Łokucijewski, Piotr Siermontowski, Marek Rejman and Romuald Olszański
The purpose of the study was to determine the effect of composition of various breathing mixes on physical capacity of rats swimming in hyperbaric conditions. The said effect was determined on the basis of results of a swim test performed in a pressure chamber. The study was performed with the use of atmospheric air, a mixture of nitrogen and oxygen (N2/O2) at a ratio of 89.5/10 and 92/7.5, as well as a mixture of argon and oxygen at a ratio of 79.5/20 (Ar/O2). The tests were conducted at a pressure range between 0-4 atm. The results suggest that the physical capacity of the tested animals decreased along with pressure increase regardless of the breathing mix used. Due to the fact that the burdening of rats with physical effort in hyperbaric conditions intensifies the adverse effects of components of breathing mixes on their performance, it seems appropriate to continue the study of physiological responses to breathing mixtures of various compositions in human body subjected to physical effort while under water.
Stanisław Klajman, Kazimierz Dęga, Janusz Torbus and Zbigniew Wlazłowski
The barofunction of paranasal sinuses is of great significance in terms of diving safety and comfort. The paper aimed at determining the changes in the aeration of maxillary sinuses as a result of diving activities on the basis of a radiological image. Inter alia, it was observed that individuals who frequently practise diving show persistent changes in the radiological image of sinuses, however, usually they do not influence the diving capacity.
Sławomir Kujawski, Joanna Słomko, Monika Zawadka-Kunikowska, Mariusz Kozakiewicz, Jacek J. Klawe, Małgorzata Tafil-Klawe and Paweł Zalewski
Changes observed in the core body temperature of divers are the result of a multifaceted response from the body to the change of the external environment. In response to repeated activities, there may be a chronic, physiological adaptation of the body’s response system. This is observed in the physiology of experienced divers while diving. The purpose of this study is to determine the immediate and delayed effects of hyperbaric exposure on core temperature, as well as its circadian changes in a group of three experienced divers. During compression at 30 and 60 meters, deep body temperature values tended to increase. Subsequently, deep body temperature values showed a tendency to decrease during decompression. All differences in core temperature values obtained by the group of divers at individual time points in this study were not statistically significant.
Romuald Olszański, Maciej Konarski and Piotr Siermontowski
The paper discusses the treatment results of ten patients with severe atopic dermatitis (AD) who did not respond to standard pharmacotherapy and underwent hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT). Each patient was subject to 10 oxygen exposures at pO2 2.5 ATA (~ 250 kPa) with the duration time of 60 minutes. In the period of implementation of the hyperbaric procedures the general treatment plan was suspended for all patients while maintaining typical local treatment. Clinical evaluation was performed in the study group as well as determination of levels of immunoglobulins: IgA, IgG, IgM and IgE and C3 and C4 complement. All patients indicated clinical improvement and a decreased IgE immunoglobulin and complement C3 level upon the completion of the exposure cycle. Taking into account the authors’ own observations and data from literature, an overall improvement in the clinical status and a decrease in the level of immunoglobulin E and C3 complement following a cycle of exposures may be indicative of an immunomodulating HBOT effect on AD, whereas hyperbaric oxygenation may constitute a therapeutic option for some patients with AD, especially those exhibiting a poor response to standard treatment.
In relation to EU countries, the level of safety on Polish waters is still low. The drowning rate in our country is two times higher. Since 2013, there has even been an increase in the number of drownings. Typically, following each incident, attention is focused on the quality of work of the rescue services, however, there are multiple factors to be considered when seeking where responsibility for this state of affairs actually lies. In contemplations, the main subjects of analysis were external threats (atmospheric conditions, legal conditions, trends in water recreation) and threats generated by various groups of waterrelated subjects (administrators, service providers, rescuers, cleaning and medical services, participants enjoying recreation on or in the water). The purpose of this article is to present the issues of water safety from the perspective of the responsibility of various subjects, which are active in this environment. The attractiveness of recreation in or on water results largely from the emotions caused by increased risk. Often the greater the danger, the greater the attraction. At the same time, it is accompanied by an increased sense of security, excessive self-confidence and excessive trust, which weakens the natural defense mechanism. Hence, so many accidents in the water are caused by the victims themselves. In the article we are looking for an answer to the question about the reasons for such a phenomenon.
Krzysztof Gadomski, Piotr Siermontowski, Zbigniew Dąbrowiecki and Romuald Olszaski
Allergic contact eczema is the most common occupational skin disease caused by allergens. Thus far, no research has been conducted in Poland in relation to the development of contact allergies amongst divers resulting from particular diving suit components. A group of 86 divers were examined using allergy patch tests. Standard products of contact allergy diagnostics were used containing 40 allergens.