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Modern Animal Production and Animal Welfare

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to discuss the links between modern livestock production, including its techniques and concentration, with animal welfare requirements. Modern livestock production is related to modern facilities, precise livestock production, as well as intensive and high stocking density. At the same time, it requires providing the animals with minimal living conditions, i.e. the welfare set out in the relevant regulations. This in turn should guarantee a good quality of raw livestock materials and products.

Open access
Predicting Unit Pressure Indispendable for Generation of Specific Compaction of a Soil Sample

Abstract

The objective of the research was to construct an empirical model for prediction of a unit pressure indispensable for generation of a specific compaction of soil samples. Soil material in the form of loose mass was collected from the soil layer deposited in the depth from 35 to 40 cm and then its typical properties were determined (textural group, density of solid particles, humus content, reaction, plastic and liquid limits) and in order to compact it in Proctor apparatus and in the uniaxial compression test. Results of both tests were used for construction of regression models reflecting the course of the unit strength (Pρd) necessary to generate compaction (ρdj) equal to the dry bulk density obtained in Proctor apparatus (ρdp), in relation to the sample moisture (ρdm). Searching for relations was restricted to the scope of moisure between an optimal one acc. to Proctor and the soil plastic limit. It was stated that the pressure value dp made on the soil sample in the uniaxial compression test depends significantly on w s and ρdm, and for description of this relation the use of multiple regression is sufficient. It was found out that for model samples with a textural group of silt loam and loam, differences in dry bulk density obtained in Proctor apparatus are approximately up to 0.15 g⋅cm−3.

Open access
Statistical Analysis of Common Mushroom Yielding from Cultivation Integrated with Preparations Containing Beneficial Microorganisms

Abstract

The development of the common mushroom production sector in Poland and worldwide is accompanied by growing problems of mushroom producers. Production intensification, a constant increase of market expectations, and changing legal regulations, as well as consumers, lead to the situation that producers of common mushrooms have increasing problems associated with the cultivation technology. This situation, therefore, forces producers to look for new solutions. One of such solutions is integrated cultivation of the common mushroom with microbiological preparations. The effect of these preparations on mushroom yielding was investigated in this study.

Open access
Statistical Modelling of the Number of Infected Fruiting Bodies of Common Mushrooms in Cultivation Integrated with Preparations Containing Beneficial Microorganisms

Abstract

Due to low effectiveness or high costs of using chemical agents in the protection of common mushrooms, producers are forced to look for alternative methods of protection. One such method is the use of preparations containing beneficial microorganisms. A statistical evaluation of this mushroom protection method and determination of the number of infected fruiting bodies is presented in this paper

Open access
Technology and Equipment for Obtaining Starch Syrup with Ground and Whole Cereal Grain

Abstract

Analysis of patent solutions and research of scientific-research literature in the field of grain processing with technical devices, e.g. kneaders in relation to the quality and digestibility in feed doses of the obtained syrup for the development of beef and dairy cattle was performed. Assumptions of the development trend of feed production, new technologies based on grain, which allow improvement of the quality of feed and reliability of technological lines of animal nutrition, reduce energy consumption, reduce losses were presented. In this regard, reduction of the cost of producing feed compared for example to the production of fodder beet or sugar beet from 1.5 to 2 times is possible.

Open access
Turbidity and Quantity of Sediment Particles During the Regeneration of Chemical Solutions after Cleaning of Brewing Equipment in the CIP System

Abstract

The paper presents results of analysis of turbidity changes in washing solutions and the quantity of solid particles present in them during regeneration under various temperature conditions. Three solutions taken from breweries after the process of washing brewhouse equipment in the CIP system were evaluated. The results were subjected to statistical analysis, to define the functions that characterize the changes of the tested parameters in relation to time and temperature. The results showed that the tested solutions have different favourable conditions for their regeneration. It has also been shown that the character of changes in solutions in the regeneration process is more advantageously determined on the basis of turbidity tests of solutions.

Open access
Analysis of Performance of Short Tree Logging with Farm Tractor and Logging Trailer

Abstract

The paper presents analysis of efficiency of the logging unit comprising Belarus 820 farm tractor and PD80 logging trailer equipped with Ryś-1 crane. Analysis was made based on the working day timing. The unit logged 1- meter long tree pieces (hornbeam, oak, birch) from the area where material for logging was distributed irregularly on the entire felling site. Unfavourable atmospheric conditions were reported during the working day (a thick layer of snow, low temperature, not frozen soil) which could have influenced the unit operation performance. Despite that the performance of the logging unit was comparable to similar logging units described in the literature. Determined coefficient of use of the operating time of the machine K02 was 0.93, coefficient of use of the shift working time K04 − 0.9, coefficient of use of the shift exploitation time K07 − 0.8. Hourly performance in the shift exploitation time was 4.98 m3·h−1, efficiency in the shift working time W02 − 4.80 m3·h−1 and performance in the general shift time W07 − 4.30 m3·h−1.

Open access
Comparative Study on the Applicability of Analytical and Experimental Methods in the Analysis of the Safe Use of Rail Tankers Carrying Petroleum Products Under Pressure

Abstract

The safety of railways has been and remains a critical topic. Whether it is infrastructure or rolling stock, the issue of safety is a permanent concern of the utmost importance, being reflected in the efficiency of any transport system.

This paper focuses on the safety in operation of pressure vessels that equip railway tanks. There are many articles and works on this subject, and it is well-known that there are both national and international regulations regarding their design, execution, operation and maintenance. Also, there are quite a few reports on the BLEVE (Boiling Liquid Expanding Vapour Explosion) phenomenon resulting in material damage and significant casualties. The BLEVE-type explosion is not considered a chemical explosion derived from a gas-air explosive environment (also present in non-flammable gases), but rather a mechanical explosion through over-pressurization.

Thus, we propose a comparative study between the results obtained using theoretical methods and those obtained as a result of tensoresistive measurements on such a tanker.

Open access
Development of New Technologies for Cattle Breeding Systems Taking Into Account Sustainable Environmental Conditions

Abstract

Properly designed housing buildings, with regard to reduction of a negative influence on environment, are necessary for ensuring sustainable development in agriculture. The objective of this paper was to show the results of environmental conditions research on high milk yield dairy cattle in different housing systems. Temperature and relative humidity of air and concentrations of harmful gases − ammonia and carbon dioxide accompanying them were investigated.

Open access
The Effect of Ecological and Geographical Factors on Environmental Parameters as a Background for Vegetables Selection

Abstract

The aim of the study is to find out the role of the ecological and geographical fator in obtaining sustainable yields and the assessment of the environment as a background for the selection in breeding of vegetable adaptive ability. Objects of research: winter garlic, vegetables beans, headed salad. Research was conducted in various ecological and geographical zones of Belarus, Russia, Uzbekistan. Environmental parameters as the background for selection were determined using Kilchevsky’s, L. V. Hotyleva’s (1985), technique, Kilchevsky (1985). Differences between testing points on environmental parameters for determining the trait “yielding capacity” have been revealed, maximum environmental productivity at assessing various genotype sets has been determined. Long-term research showed that sustainable productivity depends on the ability of a genotype to respond to environmental conditions. Based on the obtained results, statistical parameters of quantity traits of the parent material, their variability depending on ecological-geographical factor and the character of influence on the potential yields and ecological sustainability have been received. Using various ecological and geographical zones helps to reveal the potential of plants in given conditions on sustainability and productivity parameters. Testing of winter garlic, beans, head salad allowed differentiation of them according to adaptability capacity at various set of genotypes. It was found out that research must be carried out at highly productive and analyzing backgrounds to get the required material. One of the main methods enabling to increase plant selection efficiency is the use of natural ecological backgrounds.

Open access