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František Mihina

Abstract

Moritz Schlick was the leader of an influential group of scientists, logicians and philosophers. The content of his book “Problems of Ethics” is the application of the method of logical analysis of language to some of traditional ethical problems. Schlick offers many topics in his book Problems of Ethics – what are the motives of human conduct, what is egoism, what is the meaning of “moral”, etc. In this article, focus will be on the explanation of only one of many areas of Schlick’s ethics – the meta-theoretical perspective describing the main aims of his ethical magnum opus – Problems of Ethics.

Open access

Jeremy David Bendik-Keymer

Abstract

Given the reality of socially-caused, planetary-scaled, environmental change, how – if at all – should our ethical concepts change? It has been a hallmark of environmental literature in recent years to insist that they should or even must. It will be argued that, yes, our ethical concepts should change by exploring the changes needed for the core ethical concept of goodness. Goodness, it will be argued, must change to reflect a change in priority from personal intentions to the right relation between an agent and the collective to which he/she belongs. This relation, which is called herein the civic relation, centers on taking responsibility for the structure which produces unintentional, aggregate effects at the level of planetary ecology. Examples include a fossil fuel-based infrastructure, isolationist nationalism that undercuts international climate agreements to decarbonize energy, and the lack of a political forum to respect the rights of future generations. More generally, goodness according to the civic relation must express an anthroponomic orientation to life – a sustained, life-long attempt to build the practice of the collective self-regulation of humankind as a whole. Of the many consequences of this meta-ethical change in goodness, one is that it addresses the banality of evil today.

Open access

Jaime A. Teixeira da Silva and Vedran Katavić

Abstract

In this opinion piece, some of the practices of academic publication in the biomedical field related to the rewarding, or the lack thereof, of peer reviewers are described and discussed. The role and possibly exploitative relationship of mainstream, established publishers of prestigious journals towards their contributors (authors), and peer reviewers is considered. In addition, the role and accountability of publishers and contributors in “predatory” journals is assessed. Professionals who are recruited by the publishing industry, especially the for-profit industry, either as peer reviewers or editors, to complete a professional task, should be rewarded financially as professionals, as for other sectors of the economy, and not simply exploited for free. Points systems or discounts off a publisher’s products do not constitute sufficient, or fair, compensation.

Open access

Jakub Synowiec

Abstract

Effective Altruism is a very new discipline. The first steps towards creating a community were made in 2009. Although the movement is young, it has already changed lives of many people and its popularity continues to rise. The idea of effective altruism is deeply rooted in philosophy, hence to understand it better an attempt will be made to reconstruct and present the philosophical framework of Effective Altruism. This part is intended to show the development of utilitarian thought that led to Effective Altruism. I intentionally limited this reconstruction to the views of Peter Singer, as his philosophy inspired many effective altruists, especially at the beginning of the movement. I have tried to show that his earliest works were the first steps on the way to effective altruism. In the second part selected details of the idea will be referred to in order to show the current state of development of this branch of utilitarianism. In the last part, selected doubts and critical remarks will be presented that might be inspiration to adapt Effective Altruism to specific conditions of Central and Eastern Europe. It will be argued that advocacy for Effective Altruism is a fair way for effective altruists in countries of Central and Eastern Europe.

Open access

Dorota Probucka

Abstract

The purpose of my article is to show the importance of normative ethics for the education of young people in three areas: individual, social and natural. In the first case, ethics answers the question how we should treat ourselves. Thus, it teaches responsibility for oneself, for one’s life and individual development. In the second case, ethics answers the question how we should treat other people in order to minimize the risk of harming them. Thus, it teaches responsibility to other members of society. In the third case, normative ethics reminds us of moral obligations towards non-human beings, stressing that suffering has an interspecies character, and doesn’t pertain only to representatives of Homo sapiens.

Open access

Josef Kuře

Abstract

The paper deals with conscientious objection in health care, addressing the problems of scope, verification and limitation of such refusal, paying attention to ideological agendas hidden behind the right of conscience where the claimed refusal can cause harm or where such a claim is an attempt to impose certain moral values on society or an excuse for not providing health care. The nature of conscientious objection will be investigated and an ethical analysis of conscientious objection will be conducted. Finally some suggestions for health care policy will be proposed.

Open access

Corneliu C. Simuț

Abstract

This paper is an attempt to present the Hegelian theology of Vito Mancuso, a radical lay Catholic theologian, from the perspective of the ethics of social consequences, as primarily promoted by Vasil Gluchman. Mancuso is a keen observer of today’s society and he identifies a serious flaw among contemporary people in what he calls the idol of our time. This so-called idol is a human desire which seems to have been promoted more aggressively within contemporary society through various publicity channels, so it has developed into a mass phenomenon in today’s world. According to Mancuso, this desire is man’s longing to stay young despite the natural process of aging, a fact which has individual, spiritual, as well as social implications. He also introduces the necessity for the cultivation of one’s soul for the personal benefit of individuals but also for the prosperity of society in general. In other words, Mancuso borrows, from Hegel, the necessity that the human spirit should develop to the point of positively accepting the materiality of its natural constitution for the wellbeing of all individuals living in the same society which very much resembles Gluchman’s focus on human reasoning and moral action aimed at the promotion of positive consequences and moral duty as means to educate the human spirit towards tolerance and responsibility, all key concepts in Gluchman’s ethics of social consequences.

Open access

Júlia Klembarová

Abstract

This article is devoted to the conception of ethics in Slovakia. Main attention is dedicated to the issue of value education within this subject. It emphasizes the importance of explicit as well as implicit dimensions of value education which represents an important component in the moral development of pupils

Open access

Vasil Gluchman

Abstract

With regard to existing concept of the moral education (ethics) in Slovakia, the questions of ethics and morals are only one of the partial sections. The dominant role is played by psychology based on Roberto Olivar’s concept with emphasis on pro-socialization and on Erickson’s concept of the psychosocial development. From the philosophy basis point of view, only Aristotle, even in reduced form and Spranger’s concept of the life forms are mentioned. Philosophy and ethics are only complements to more psychologically based educational program which is resulting from the problematic division of a social and moral experience into egoistic and prosocial. Egoism is presented in a distorted form and is characterized as the cause of all moral evil. However, there are several different types of understanding of the term egoism in philosophy and ethics as for example psychological and ethical egoism, or self-interest. Ethical egoism or self-interest cannot be identified with selfishness. The main aim of moral education should not be only to form the desired children and youth moral orientation but on the other hand, to form morally self-confident individuals who are able to solve the moral problems, to help the others to solve them as well and to be able to bear moral responsibility for their own deeds.

Open access

Slavomír Lesňák and Radim Štěrba

Abstract

The following study presents an analysis of the world of moral education in the Czech environment from its recorded beginnings to the current situation in the Czech Republic. The study contains two parts: In the first section, the authors give an account of the history of moral education and different views on it, while in the second section they analyse the current state of moral education. The authors examine the quality of moral education at primary and secondary schools according to the goals of curriculum documents issued by the Ministry of Education, Youth and Sport of the Czech Republic for schools’ ethical education programmes and subjects dealing with character development. Based on their own research, they compare set goals with practice, draw conclusions and give recommendations not only to primary and secondary schools, but also to higher education institutions, particularly in terms of introducing professional ethics tools and intensifying their use. The authors suggest expanding the ethical climate at schools to contain the atmosphere of recognition, biophile culture and technological scepticism.