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Numerical Study of an Isothermal Slush Flow for Aerospace Propulsion Applications

Abstract

Slushes are two-phase solid-liquid single-species cryogenic fluids that exhibit an increased density and a greater heat capacity with respect to the corresponding normal boiling point liquids. These promising features are of large interest for applications that exploit slush as a thermal fluid, like super magnets refrigeration, cryogenic cooling of bio-materials or air conditioning, and for aerospace systems that use slush fluids as fuel or oxidizer. Several programs in the frame of the research on Slush Hydrogen (SLH2) as a new-generation fuel for aerospace propulsion have been started in the past. This work was carried out in the framework of a VKI research activity promoted by the Predict ESA Technology Research Programme, to investigate experimentally and numerically the behavior of slush flows in a representative upper stage feeding line. In this paper, we present a simulation based on a granular two-fluid model on an isothermal solid liquid mixture (slurry) and a Nitrogen slush (SLN2) fluid flowing in a horizontal pipe. A finite-volumes discretization using the software library OpenFOAM was benchmarked against experimental and numerical literature data, to assess the accuracy of the code in predicting pressure drops along the pipe axis and solid particle distribution across the pipe diameter. Moreover, the effects of concentration and inlet velocity are investigated. We show that the numerical model fairly reproduces the literature data in terms of important aspects as the solid volume fraction distribution and the pressure drops, especially for high flow rates.

Open access
On the Areospace-Grade Adhesives Shear Strength Testing with ASTM D5656 Test as an Example

Abstract

This article presents adhesive shearing test methods, focusing especially on the ASTM D5656 method. These methods will be briefly characterized and compared. The most important concerns about the D5656 method are described. With the use of ASTM D1002 and D5656 methods, the influence of adherend surface preparation on shearing properties of the bond is evaluated. Compared to sandblasting only, sandblasting followed by the FPL process (sulfochromate etching of aluminum) increased shear strength of joints by 35 % for ASTM D1002 tests and by 48% for D5656 tests. Comparing these two methods, shear strength obtained in D5656 tests is about two times higher than in D1002 tests. The cause for this phenomena is much larger adherend thickness in the D5656 method, which provides the coupons with increased stiffness. Shear modulus, calculated with 3 different calculation methods, showed differences in obtained results, which points to necessary actualization of D5656 standard.

Open access
Preparation and Implementation of a Test Flight of Lightweight, Unmanned Stratospheric Balloon with Gopro Camera Mounted and Analysis of Acquired Material

Abstract

Publication contains a description of the preparation and the implementation of a test flight of a stratospheric balloon with a mounted camera GoPro Hero3. Description includes: used equipment, its parameters, role in the success of the mission and the difficulties and limitations that the project team encountered during the preparation and implementation of the flight. The mission was attended by a team of six engineers and scientists from the Remote Sensing Division, who were also involved in the implementation of the HESOFF project. One of the main goals of the HESOFF project was to obtain aerial images on the Krotoszyńska Plate (woj. wielkopolskie) using the Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) and to carry out remote monitoring of oak stands. The primary goal of an experimental balloon flight was to check the technical operational capability and gain experience in planning and implementing this type of project. During the balloon raising, the video material was acquired in the form of a recording, which later was analyzed. On the basis of the collected information, the conclusions regarding the possibility of implementing a long endurance flight in the stratosphere, illustrating (using a multisensor platform) research surfaces of the HESOFF project were presented. The stages of implementation of the presented mission were divided into following parts: preparation of the flight with the completion of equipment and necessary documents (flight permission), proper flight realization, understood as the release of the balloon and identification of the place where the equipment landed, as well as analysis and presentation of the results.

Open access
Problems of use of FMEA method in industrial enterprise

Abstract

Presented paper concentrate on problems connected with FMEA method usage in industrial enterprise. There is in the paper a description of the basic rules of FMEA method and competition between FMEA analysis and gap analysis. The analysis of defects has been done to find recommendations how to eliminate or restrain them. On the basis of conducted research we found that selection of staff to the team is very important factor in the FMEA analysis undertaking process. The staff should have appropriate level of knowledge about FMEA method methodology and other tools which are indispensable in the process of implementing this method within the company.

Open access
Review of Testing Methods Dedicated for Sandwich Structures with Honeycomb Core

Abstract

This paper is a review of testing methods dedicated for sandwich type composite structures with honeycomb core. First, information about the composition of sandwich materials structures, their properties, types of core materials and applications in the industry is presented. Mechanical properties were compared in the case of different types of the core material. Later, tests methods needed to describe properties of those materials and normalization organizations which create them were mentioned. The testing methods were divided into two groups: mechanical and physicochemical tests. Mechanical properties are: compressive strength (two types of test), edge compressive strength, shear strength (in two directions) and tension strength (two types of test). Physicochemical properties are: material density, water migration, water absorption and thermal conductivity. Testing methods were described according to American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards. This article is based on professional literature and the author’s experience.

Open access
Selective crystallization of gamma glycine for NLO applications using magnesium sulfate (MgSO4) as an additive

Abstract

Crystallization of γ-glycine in the presence of selected concentration (9 g/mL) of tailor-made additive magnesium sulfate heptahydrate salt (MgSO4·7H2O) has been studied at ambient temperature by adopting slow solvent evaporation procedure. The morphological modifications of glycine crystals grown from pure aqueous solutions of glycine and from glycine solutions containing magnesium species in the amount of 0.1 g/mL to 16 g/mL have been investigated thoroughly. The crystalline nature and phase identification of the crystalline material were confirmed by X-ray powder diffraction and SXRD studies. NMR studies revealed the information about the molecular conformation in solution, phase changes, functional groups and chemical environment. FT-IR spectra revealed distinct difference between α and γ-glycine polymorphs in the region around 880 cm−1 to 930 cm−1. The grown γ-glycine crystal had a lower cut-off value at 200 nm and the bandgap value evaluated from the Tauc plot was found to be 5.83 eV. The marked differences between α and γ-polymorphs of glycine were also revealed by DSC thermograms. The mechanical strength of the γ-glycine crystal was studied with the help of Vickers microhardness instrument. Kurtz-powder NLO study proved the generation of second harmonics (i.e. green light emission) in the grown γ-glycine crystal and its efficiency was calculated as 1.44 times better than that of the reference material potassium dihydrogen phosphate.

Open access
A Simulation Model for Computing the Loads Generated at Landing Site During Helicopter Take-Off or Landing Operation

Summary

The paper presents simulation method and results of calculations determining behavior of helicopter and landing site loads which are generated during phase of the helicopter take-off and landing. For helicopter with whirling rotor standing on ground or touching it, the loads of landing gear depend on the parameters of helicopter movement, occurrence of wind gusts and control of pitch angle of the rotor blades. The considered model of helicopter consists of the fuselage and main transmission treated as rigid bodies connected with elastic elements. The fuselage is supported by landing gear modeled by units of spring and damping elements. The rotor blades are modeled as elastic axes with sets of lumped masses of blade segments distributed along them. The Runge-Kutta method was used to solve the equations of motion of the helicopter model. According to the Galerkin method, it was assumed that the parameters of the elastic blade motion can be treated as a combination of its bending and torsion eigen modes. For calculations, data of a hypothetical light helicopter were applied. Simulation results were presented for the cases of landing helicopter touching ground with different vertical speed and for phase of take-off including influence of rotor speed changes, wind gust and control of blade pitch. The simulation method may help to define the limits of helicopter safe operation on the landing surfaces.

Open access
Structural and thermal properties of Zn-containing magnesium aluminate spinels obtained by wet chemical method

Abstract

In the present study, the dopant effect of Zn on the crystal structure, thermal properties and morphology of magnesium aluminate (MgAl2O4) spinel (MAS) structure was investigated. A pure and two Zn-containing MASs (e.g. MgAl1.93Zn0.07O4 and MgAl1.86Zn0.14O4) were synthesized for this purpose via a wet chemical method, and the as-prepared samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, differential thermal analysis (DTA), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy techniques. It was found that the crystal structure, thermal properties and morphology of the MAS system change with the increase in the amount of Zn. MgO phase formation was observed. The values of the lattice parameter, unit cell volume and crystallite size increased, and the crystallinity percentage decreased. The morphology was also affected by adding of Zn.

Open access
Structural optical and magnetic properties of transition metal doped ZnO magnetic nanoparticles synthesized by sol-gel auto-combustion method

Abstract

Transition metals, such as chromium (Cr) and manganese (Mn) doped zinc oxide (ZnO) magnetic nanoparticles, were synthesized via sole gel auto-combustion method. The prepared magnetic (Zn1−(x+y)MnxCryO, where x, y = 0, 0.02, 0.075) nanoparticles were calcined in an oven at 6000 °C for 2 hours. The morphologies of the nanoparticles were investigated using different techniques. X-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis revealed that the hexagonal wurtzite structure of the synthesized nanoparticles was unaffected by doping concentration. The crystallite size measured by Scherrer formula was in the range of 32 nm to 38 nm at different doping concentrations. Nanosized particles with well-defined boundaries were observed using a field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectra showed a wide absorption band around 1589 cm−1 in all the samples, corresponding to the stretching vibration of zinc and oxygen Zn–O bond. A blue shift in optical band gaps from 3.20 eV for ZnO to 3.08 eV for Zn0.85Mn0.075Cr0.075O nanoparticles was observed in diffuse reflectance spectra, which was attributed to the sp-d exchange interactions. The field-dependent magnetization M-H loops were measured using vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The VSM results revealed diamagnetic behavior of the ZnO nanoparticles which changed into ferromagnetic, depending on the doping concentration and particle size. The compositions of Zn, Cr, Mn and O in the prepared samples were confirmed by using the energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX). Our results provided an interesting route to improve magnetic properties of ZnO nanoparticles, which may get significant attention for the fabrication of magnetic semiconductors.

Open access
Structural, optical, thermal, dielectric and mechanical studies of a new organic NLO material: L-isoleucinium p-toluenesulfonate monohydrate (LIPT)

Abstract

In the present work, a new organic second order NLO material: L-isoleucinium p-toluenesulfonate monohydrate (LIPT) is synthesized and reported for the first time. The LIPT is crystallized in a non-centrosymmetric monoclinic space group P21. Structural and hydrogen bond nature of the compound is analyzed using single crystal X-ray diffraction studies. The crystal exhibits very good optical properties such as wide optical transparency in the region of 210 nm to 1100 nm and the ultraviolet wavelength emission (λ = 283 nm). The second harmonic generation efficiency is found to be 1.7 times the standard KDP. Good thermal, mechanical properties and low dielectric constant at high frequency range show that the material may be a potential candidate for optoelectronic applications.

Open access