Masoumeh Hasanlo, Arezo Azarm, Parvaneh Asadi, Kourosh Amini, Hossein Ebrahimi and Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi
Nursing profession conventionally meets a high standard of ethical behavior and action. One of the ethical challenges in nursing profession is moral distress. Nurses frequently expose to this phenomenon which leads to different consequences such as being bored by delivering patient care that decline care quality and make it challenging to achieve health purposes. This study was conducted to investigate the association between the aspects of moral distress and care quality.
In this descriptive–analytical study, 545 nurses of intensive and cardiac care units and dialysis and psychiatric wards were recruited by census sampling. Three questionnaires, Sociodemographics, Moral Distress Scale, and Quality Patient Care Scale, were distributed among the participants and collected within 9 months. Data analysis was conducted by descriptive statistics, analysis of variance, and the least significant difference in SPSS 13.
Investigating moral distress domains (ignoring patient, decision-making power, and professional competence) and care quality domains (psychosocial, physical, and communicational) demonstrated that in being exposed to moral distress, ignoring patient had no effect on psychosocial domain (P=0.056), but decision-making and professional competence of moral distress had positive effect on psychosocial, physical (bodily), and communication domains of care quality.
Because moral distress domains are effective on patient care quality, it is recommended to enhance the knowledge of nurses, especially beginners, about moral distress, increase their strength alongside standardizing nursing services in decision-making domains, improve the professional competence, and pay attention to patients.
Maria Alessandra Gammone, Cristiana Ficoneri and Nicolantonio D’Orazio
Overall survival of oncologic patients is strongly influenced by the incidence of malnutrition, with subsequent loss of muscle mass until sarcopenia. In this respect, the assessment of body composition has a pivotal role in order to manage the clinical consequences of muscle loss.
This study focuses on the body composition assessment in oncologic patients, following a diet plan in order to detect and contrast neoplastic cachexia.
Materials and Method:
35 oncologic patients were enrolled and divided into two groups: 24 responders (R) and 11 non-responders (NR). Anthropometric data were collected and body composition was assessed through bioimpedentiometry. All patients received an individualized normocaloric diet. Energetic content was assigned on the basis of individual basal metabolic rate estimated by BIA. All patients were revaluated by anthropometry and bioimpedentiometry 3 and 6 months thereafter.
Comparing the two male groups R and NR after 6 months, the former maintained almost the same confidence interval, unlike the latter whose interval increased, indicating a light worsening both of body composition and of clinical conditions. Furthermore, in the same male responder group, an improvement of the phase angle (PhA), a positive prognostic factor, was found, with an average weight loss between 2,6 – 3 kg of fat mass (FM). Besides, data show how the R female group maintained the confidence interval unlike the NR female group, whose confidence interval remarkably increased, therefore indicating an important alteration of body composition and subsequently a clinical conditions worsening. Finally, comparing the NR male group with the NR female group after 6 months, a remarkable worsening of body composition (marker of tissue decay and damage) could be noticed in the latter group.
After 6 months, NR patients show worse results (both in the body composition and in the clinical conditions) compared to the responders, with particularly worse results in females, probably because of a genetically determined sex-related smaller muscle cells and inferior muscular strength. A multidimensional assessment of oncologic patient is necessary, with a special attention to nutritional evaluation and body composition monitoring, in order to avoid malnutrition and subsequent further clinical worsening.
Gui-Dan Tang, Gu-Qing Zeng, Bi-Xia Zhao, Yun-Li Li, Rong Wang and Yan-Ping Wan
To systematically review the knowledge attitudes and the influential factors on human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccination among Chinese women.
Published studies on knowledge and attitudes of HPV vaccination for preventing cervical cancer among Chinese female population were retrieved using the major Chinese and English databases. Meanwhile, handwork retrieval was also conducted and the references including in the literature were retrieved. The quality of the literature was rigorously evaluated and extracted independently by two researchers and the data were analyzed and described by review manager 5.3 (RevMan5.3) software.
In all, 19 articles including 8 articles in Chinese and 11 in English were chosen. A total of 30,176 participants were included and the sample size ranged from 64 to 6,024. The overall awareness of HPV and HPV vaccine among Chinese women was at a low level. Chinese women generally showed poor knowledge about HPV and HPV vaccine. Acceptance of HPV vaccination among Chinese women was at a high level. Vaccination intentions were influenced by the theory of planned behavior (TPB) and measured by attitudes subjective norms and perceived behavioral control.
The health authorities may evaluate and develop TPB-based interventions to increase HPV vaccination intentions of Chinese women. HPV vaccination programs should focus on carrying out multi-level and targeted health education and developing effective public health strategies after balancing the cost and benefit of HPV vaccine program. Medical staff should play the positive role in promoting the use of HPV vaccines in China. Integration of policy and community perspectives and multi-level interventions are essential to maximize the public health benefits of HPV vaccination.
Jan-Hugo Andersen, Olav Bjerke, Fatos Blakaj, Vilde Moe Flugsrud, Fredrik Alstad Jacobsen, Marius Jonsson, Eirik Nobuki Kosaka, Petter André Langstrand, Øyvind Grannes Martinsen, Alexander Stene Moen, Emily Qing Zang Moen, Øyvind Knutsen Nystad, Eline Olesen, Mahum Qureshi, Victor Jose Østrem Risopatron, Simen Kristoffer Ruud, Nikolai Stensø, Fredrik Lindseth Winje, Eirik Vetle Winness, Sisay Abie, Vegard Munkeby Joten, Christian Tronstad, Ole Elvebakk and Ørjan Grøttem Martinsen
Sixteen volunteers each drank 700 ml sugar-containing soft drink during two successive periods and the blood sugar was measured at 10 min intervals together with electrical impedance spectroscopy and near infrared spectroscopy (NIR). A maximum correlation of 0.46 was found for the electrical measurements but no clear separation between low and high blood glucose levels were found in the NIR measurements. The latter was attributed to the experimental design where the NIR probe was removed from the skin between each measurement.
Ørjan G. Martinsen, Håvard Kalvøy, Dindar S. Bari and Christian Tronstad
A circuit is presented that enables measurement of skin electrical conductance, susceptance, and potential simultaneously beneath the same monopolar electrode. Example measurements are shown to confirm the function of the circuit. The measurements are also in accordance with earlier findings that changes in skin conductance and potential do not always correspond and hence contain unique information.
Postpartum hemorrhage (PPH) is a leading cause of maternal death. Although guidelines have been updated, those with detailed protocols are limited for nursing practice. This study aims at establishing an early assessment and intervention protocol as a toolkit for PPH for midwives and obstetrical nurses.
Employing the evidence-based method, a systematic Internet search of guidelines was conducted and appraisal of literatures was conducted with AGREE system and Oxman-Guyatt Overview Quality Assessment Questionnaire (OQAQ), according to which a protocol draft was therefore developed. Then, a two-round modified Delphi method was utilized to reach a consensus of the protocol built on best practices. Selection criteria for each intervention measure included consensus level with a threshold of 70%, mean of importance (M) >3.5, and coefficient of variation (CV) <0.25. Reliability of experts’ opinion was calculated by positive coefficient and authoritative coefficient. Items without consistency were enlisted in the second-round consult. When all items met the selection criteria, the protocol would be finally formulated.
A 122-measure protocol was established, including prevention, assessment, and intervention of PPH. With a panel of 14 experts participated in the consult, the positivity coefficient was 0.93 and 1.00 for two rounds, respectively, and the authority coefficient was 0.88. After a two-round consult and revision of the draft, the final program was formulated, containing 5 first-level indexes and 14 second-level indexes with a total item of 120.
The PPH protocol, based on high-quality evidences, was formulated with a two-round Delphi method, which can provide insight for midwives and obstetrical nurses to effectively deal with PPH.