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Open access

D. Chagas De Souza, L. Lima Correa and M. Tavares-Dias

Abstract

The present study investigated the occurrence of metacercariae of Ithyoclinostomum dimorphum in Hoplias malabaricus in the basin of the São Francisco River in the state of Minas Gerais (Brazil). Twenty-nine fish were examined in June 2012 during a survey of fish and parasitic fauna. Of the fish examined, 34.5 % had infected eyes, intestine and musculature, with a mean intensity of 1.1 and an abundance of 0.4 per fish. The prevalence in the intestine was 31.0 %, with mean intensity of 1.1 and mean abundance of 0.3. In the eyes, the prevalence was 3.4 %, with a mean intensity of 1.0 and mean abundance of 1.0. The metacercaria found in the right eyeball was lodged between the cornea and iris. The low parasitism did not affect the condition factor (Kn) of the parasitized fish. This was the first report of I. dimorphum in the eyes of Hoplias malabaricus, a secondary intermediate host for this endoparasite.

Open access

Jana Bilčíková, Veronika Fialková, Eva Kováčiková, Michal Miškeje, Barbara Tombarkiewicz and Zuzana Kňažická

Summary

Niobium, osmium, scandium, tungsten and vanadium are transition metals naturally occuring in the environment, particularly in the Earth’s crust. Anthropogenic activities, primarily industrial technologies, have precipitated significant alternations in the concentration and distribution of these metals. Such a dramatic change resulted, by all means, in the bigger potential of the environmental exposure, which poses a threat not only to humans but to all biological systems. Certain elements naturally occur in the animal and human plasma and tissues, but their concentrations are sometimes too low to be detected using the existing modern technologies. In small amounts, such elements are not harmful and some of them have even been suggested to have a beneficial role in the human or animal physiology. However, exposure to excessive antropogenically elevated levels can exert serious negative effects on the environment, agriculture and health. The findings summarized in this paper provide a review of the current knowledge about the implications of the transition metals considered on the health, accentuating the insufficiency and need for more relevant data.

Open access

Mirjana Đukić Stojčić and Lidija Perić

Summary

The purpose of this study is to examine the effects of the storage period on the quality characteristics of Bovans Brown table eggs. Eggs from 47-week-old hens were sampled on the day of laying and stored in a refrigerator (4°C) for periods of 7, 14, 21, and 28 days. Measurements were performed for each storage period relative to the most important quality parameters of eggs. The following egg parameters were evaluated: weight, weight loss, shell breaking force, albumen height, Haugh units and yolk color. The results obtained show that the albumen height and Haugh unit (HU) were affected by the storage period and are of immense importance. The following parameters were found to be significantly influenced by different storage periods: weight loss (P<0.05), albumen height (P<0.05) and Haugh unit (P<0.01). Rapid reductions in the albumen height were recorded during 7, 14, 21 and 28 days of storage (ranging from 6.90 mm to 6.07mm). Moreover, the Haugh unit values also decreased during storage from 81.27 to 74.89 at 4°C. The present results suggest that the albumen height and the Haugh unit are the most important parameters of egg quality, obtained from commercial layers raised in battery cages, affected by a storage period of 4 weeks.

Open access

Janina Gajc-Wolska, Katarzyna Mazur, Monika Niedzińska, Katarzyna Kowalczyk and Paweł Żołnierczyk

Abstract

Optimal feeding of field-grown plants is thought to be a key factor modifying their growth and development. Natural biostimulants, foliar fertilizers and plant growth regulators have been applied in horticultural production; however, their effect varies depending on the plant species treated, and those have been mainly cucumber, tomato, pepper, potato, and melon. The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of preparations produced through nanotechnology on the yield and fruit quality of sweet pepper grown under cover. The experiment comprised plants grown in three different combinations: combination I (plants treated with 2 kg ha−1 Nano Active); combination II (plants treated with 1% Nano Active Forte + 4 kg ha−1 Nano Active Forte + 2 kg ha−1 Nano Active, a single treatment carried out at the initial stage of fruit formation); and combination III (the control, where all plants were sprayed with water).

The obtained results showed that Nano Active Forte foliar treatment of sweet pepper plants significantly increased fruit yield in protected cultivation. Supplementation with foliar fertilizers modified the fruit chemical composition. Application of the Nano Active Forte preparation led to an increase in dry matter content as well as in the concentrations of total sugars, vitamin C and carotenoids. Applications of Nano Active Forte and Nano Active enhanced the potassium and phosphorus contents, while the concentrations of nitrates and calcium remained at the same level regardless of the preparations used.

Open access

Ayesha Manzoor, Touqeer Ahmad, Muhammad Ajmal Bashir, Mirza Muhammad Qadeer Baig, Abdul Ahad Quresh, Muhammad Kausar Nawaz Shah and Ishfaq Ahmed Hafiz

Abstract

Gladiolus is one of the most important lucrative cut flower crops that is commercially cultivated worldwide due to its various spike forms, size, and shape and color combinations. In order to further increase the commercial and horticultural value by improving the ornamental traits of gladiolus ‘White Prosperity’, polyploidy was induced by soaking gladiolus corms in different colchicine concentrations (0.1%, 0.2% and 0.3%) for 24 h. Different colchicine concentrations had a little effect on sprouting and survival percentage but it significantly delayed the emergence of sprouts. About one third decreases in plant height along with reduction in number of leaves per plant, leaf area, length and width, chlorophyll content, diameter and number of cormlets per corm was observed in treated plants. Colchicine at 0.1% concentration improved the ornamental value of gladiolus by increasing vase life whereas colchicine at 0.3% was effective in increasing floret diameter. However, the colchicine treated plants exhibited delayed and reduced percentage of flowering corms. Pollen and stomatal study was done for the identification of polyploidy and it showed that both pollen and stomata size were increased while stomatal density and pollen fertility was significantly reduced in polyploid plants. Induction of polyploidy (mixoploids + octoploids) was achieved in all concentrations, however 0.2% and 0.3% concentrations of colchicine were effective for producing large number of polyploid plants. But at 0.1% concentration of colchicine, majority of plants did not show any change in their original ploidy level (tetraploid). These putative polyploids may be helpful for further improvement in ornamental and horticultural value of gladiolus.

Open access

A. Dudlová, P. Juriš, P. Jarčuška, Z. Vasilková, V. Vargová, M. Sumková and V. Krčméry

Abstract

Helminth infections caused by Enterobius vermicularis have a cosmopolitan character and most often affect the paediatric pre-school and school age population. The presented study was conducted to determine the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the analyzed population of children in the Eastern Slovakia. The Graham’s scotch tape method was used to investigate the presence of Enterobius vermicularis eggs in 390 specimens. The analyzed set consisted of 218 girls and 172 boys, divided by age into three groups - aged from 5 months to 2 years, aged from 3 to 6 years, and aged from 7 to 15 years. Investigation of perianal scotch tapes of children for the presence of E. vermicularis eggs revealed the prevalence of E. vermicularis was P = 3.59 %. Depending on the incidence of E. vermicularis infection, we detected no statistically signifi cant difference (p> 0.05). The prevalence of E. vermicularis in boys was P = 4.07 %, and in girls P = 3.21 %. The highest prevalence of E. vermicularis was recorded in the group of children aged from 3 to 6 years (P = 5.03 %). Most of the samples were positive at age 4 and 5. The lowest prevalence was in the group of children aged from 5 months to 2 years (P = 0.97 %), and the prevalence of E. vermicularis in the group of children aged from 7 to 15 was P = 3.91 %. The difference in the incidence of E. vermicularis infection among different age groups of children was not statistically significant (p> 0.05). Enterobius vermicularis nematode infection and enterobiasis currently represents a major public health problem in Slovakia. At the present its occurrence is the most frequent in the paediatric population. Therefore it is important to introduce a targeted hygienic-epidemiological measure in children’s collectives, what also should include proper and effective diagnostics and frequent recurrent therapy.

Open access

Agnieszka Wojtania and Bożena Matysiak

Abstract

The aim of the study was to develop an efficient micropropagation system for Rosa ‘Konstancin’, an interspecific hybrid between R. rugosa and R. beggeriana, whose fruits have high pro-health value. Shoot cultures were initiated from shoot buds collected in May and August from 15-year-old field-grown Rosa ‘Konstancin’ shrubs. The effect and interaction of different concentrations of phytohormones, sucrose and iron sources on in vitro initiation, multiplication and rooting of shoots were studied.

The time of collecting explants from donor plants significantly affected the initiation of shoot culture of Rosa ‘Konstancin’. Considerably higher frequency of bud break (100%) was obtained in explants isolated in August as compared to those collected at the end of May (30%). All buds developed into single shoots after 2-4 weeks of growing on the basal Murashige and Skoog medium containing 2.2 µM BAP, 0.3 µM GA3 and 88 mM of sucrose. The highest multiplication rate (4.8 shoots/explant) in a 5-week period was obtained on MS medium containing 50% of nitrogen salts, 3.1 µM BAP, 0.9 µM GA3 and 58 mM sucrose. High rooting frequency (100%) and quality of rooted plantlets was obtained on a medium containing 0.5 µM IBA, 138 µM Fe-EDDHA and 88 mM sucrose. Fe-EDDHA had a beneficial effect on the growth and photosynthetic activity of Rosa ‘Konstancin’ plantlets, which were successfully acclimatized ex vitro, with a more than 90% survival rate.

Open access

Jian Zhang, Pengcheng Wang, Hongmei Tian, Haikun Jiang, Yan Wang, Ling Fang and Qian Zhang

Abstract

The cost of growing triploid watermelon seedlings has increased due to their low-efficiency grafting. The first priority in growing seedless watermelon seedlings is increasing the grafted-plant and seed-utilization rates. This study aimed to improve the grafted-plant rate by screening the most suitable substrate formulation, optimizing water moisture in the substrate, and evaluating the effect of different scions to improve seed-utilization rate. Five combinations of substrate (S1 to S5) and seven relative humidity levels (45%, 50%, 55%, 60%, 65%, 70%, and 75%) were used. Three types of scions (yellow bud, Ts-1; two cotyledons did not unfold, Ts-2; and first true leaf appeared, Ts-3) were tested. Results showed that the combination of S1 exhibited the best seed-utilization rate which was 71.6%. Moreover, the most suitable water moisture in the substrate ranged from 50% to 55%. The usage of the scion from Ts-3 significantly increased the grafting survival, grafted plant and seed-utilization rates by 13.7%, 10.1% and 22%, respectively, compared with the conventional method. Our study suggested that the best time to use the scion and the rootstock was during the seedling stage when the first true leaf unfolded. The proposed method decreased the production cost of seedlings and significantly improved the efficiency of grafting procedures. The results of this work are applicable to the technique of growing seedlings and can thus guide growers of high-quality grafted plants of triploid watermelon.

Open access

Mani Manokari and Mahipal S. Shekhawat

Abstract

The present study reports an efficient in vitro propagation system for Turnera ulmifolia using nodal segments as explants. Turnera ulmifolia (Passifloraceae) is an important garden plant with multipotent medicinal values. Effective shoot proliferation was achieved on agar gelled MS medium (Murashige and Skoog, 1962). The maximum number of shoots (8.3 ± 0.57) per initial explant was obtained on MS medium supplemented with 8.88 mM of 6-benzylaminopurine (BAP) and 0.54 mM of α-naphthalene acetic acid (NAA). The highest number of shoots (59.5 ± 2.10) proliferated on semi-solid MS medium (with agar) augmented with 2.22 mM of BAP and 2.32 mM of kinetin (Kin) along with 0.54 mM of NAA. Longer (4-5 cm) and healthy shoots were rooted (12.0 ± 0.10 roots per shoot) on half-strength MS medium fortified with 9.84 mM of indole-3 butyric acid (IBA). The in vitro regenerated plantlets were hardened in the greenhouse and transferred to the field. Significant developmental changes were observed in the foliar micromorphology of in vitro raised plantlets when these were transferred to the field. The stomatal index was gradually reduced (26.72 to 21.25) in the leaves from in vitro to field environments. But, vein-islets and veinlet terminations (13.4 and 7.6) were increased (39.7 and 18.4) respectively from in vitro to in vivo grown plants. Simple, unicellular, less frequent and underdeveloped trichomes were observed with the leaves of in vitro plants but fully developed trichomes recorded in the field transferred plants. The study could help in understanding the response and adaptation of tissue culture raised plantlets towards changed environmental conditions.

Open access

E. F. Fernandes De Carvalho, A. Ferreira Da Silva-Neta, C. De Sousa Silva, C. R. De Oliveira, J. Da Cunha Xavier Nunes, T. Gonçalves De Souza and R. W. Ávila

Abstract

Snakes have diverse feeding and living habits, being exposed to a variety of endoparasite communities. However, more studies are still necessary to document these relationships. We examined 18 specimens of the cat-eyed snake Leptodeira annulata from a semi-arid region in Northeast Brazil. Eight taxa of parasites were found, with higher prevalence of cystacanths (Acanthocephala). Five nematode species (Hexametra boddaertii, Oswaldocruzia sp., Oxyascaris sp., Physaloptera sp. and Raillietnema spectans) and the pentastome Raillietiella furcocerca represent a new parasitism record for the host studied. Our results also showed that L. annulata could act as paratenic host for acanthocephalans. These results contribute to the knowledge of the helminth fauna of L. annulata.