(Case study of tourism companies in IndonesiaStock Exchange)
Ngatemin, Azhar Maksum, Erlina and Sirojuzilam
This study aims to examine whether profitability, firm size, institutional ownership, growth affect the capital structure and whether profitability, firm size, institutional ownership, growth affect the value of the company through the capital structure. The sample used in this research is the tourism industry sector companies listed in Indonesia Stock Exchange 2007-2014 period, which has complete financial report and published in Indonesian Capital Market Directory (ICMD) as many as 19 companies. The data collected were analyzed using Path Analysis. Path analysis obtained that Return on Equity (ROE), Institutional Ownership (KIS), Growth Assets (GA) and Debt Asset Ratio (DAR) is the direction or positive with Value of the Firm (PRICE) where every increase ROE, KIS and GA followed by a rise in PRICE. On the other hand Firm Size (SIZE) has a negative relation to PRICE where every increase of SIZE is followed by decrease of PRICE.
The basic function of taxes is the fiscal function, which consists in collecting revenue by public authorities. The imposition of non-fiscal functions on taxes causes the weakening of their basic function. The purpose of the article is to present tax exemptions, as well as to assess the fiscal consequences of their application in excise duty in Poland in 2012-2016.
The Polish excise duty solutions provide for numerous tax exemptions, whereby it should be noted that a significant part are attributable to EU solutions resulting from harmonisation of this tax. In light of the conducted research, it may be concluded that the applied tax exemptions have a significant influence on fiscal efficiency (causing an average revenue decrease of approximately 7% during the examined period).
The aim of the research is to determine if the audit fees are statistically significantly different between the audit companies and vary, depending on the size of client and audit company. We find that for large auditees the average audit fees of the Big 4 Group did not statistically significantly deviate from normative audit fees, even surpass them, but not statistically significant. On average, small audit firms when auditing large auditees do not meet the predicted normative audit fees, and this deviation is statistically significant. Also, we confirm that the Big 4 auditing companies (KPMG, E & Y, Deloitte and PwC) were, statistically, significantly more likely to charge higher audit fees than a small auditing company would charge. The paper contributes to the literature to give users a clear indication about what average audit fees are typical of the Slovenian audit companies and which audit company is at the forefront.
An essential condition for asserting responsibility in public finances is that they are open and transparent. The Public Finance Act mentions ways of applying the principles of openness, and also stipulates the entities obliged to present data and information on public finances. There is, however, no legislation connected directly with transparency. So do the general requirements of classification and of accountancy and reporting principles constitute sufficient premises for accountability and asserting responsibility? An analysis of the reports and documents concerning the Polish public finance sector indicates that the processes of collecting and spending public funds are insufficiently transparent. The information system enables formal verification of discipline of public finances; however, it does not provide a sufficient basis to assess the effectiveness and efficiency, which are of key importance in terms of accountability. The aim of the article is to analyse the requirements and standards in the field of openness and transparency insofar as these concern the responsibility and accountability of public authorities, along with elements of how these are assessed in the Polish public finance system. A normative descriptive method was applied which took into consideration elements of finance theory, as well as an analysis of practical experience in the field of how public sector bodies function in Poland. The research objectives are realised mainly on the basis of a critical review of the literature on the subject, and an analysis of legal acts, reports and other documents of domestic and international institutions. The considerations and analyzes have led to several key applications to develop the principles of openness and transparency in relation to improving the accountability of public finances.
Athanasios L. Athanasenas, Xanthippi Chapsa and Persefoni Polychronidou
In the famous “anti-Commons” theory, resources are underused when multiple owners are endowed with the right to exclude other potential users, in contrast to the “Commons” theory that identifies resource over-exploitation. In this crucial preliminary study, “Intestate Succession” (i.e. “Succession without Will”) is under investigation, thus evaluating whether the number of land cotenants (heirs, in “Intestate Succession”) affects significantly (or not) land market values, by taking into account certain significant economic variables, representing the whole population official and primary data, officially available from the municipal Serres Farmlands. Applying advanced GLM, we perform ANCOVA analysis, considering as dependent variable the market land value. We find that, controlling for the objective land value (IRS land value), location, irrigation, farmer identity, and land segmentation-fragmentation all affect significantly the market land value variable. Significantly, the number of heirs does not seem to be a significant factor yet in the context of the “anti-Commons” theory.
Nestor Shpak, Oleg Sorochak, Maryana Hvozd and Włodzimierz Sroka
Work objective includes the development of risk level estimation method for the implementation of the business processes reengineering projects at the instrument-making enterprises based on fussy set theory. The article analyzes and highlights the risks in the system of project management and reengineering programs for business processes at enterprises. The risk groups and their types that can arise during the reengineering of business processes at instrument-making enterprises are systematized and allocated, in particular: investment, financial, organizational, technical, technological, operational and informational. To assess the impact of these risks on the effectiveness of reengineering projects, a method based on the theory of fuzzy sets is proposed.
Carlos Jorge Lenczewski Martins
Since the appearance of high-frequency trading in the 1990s, speed has become one of the key issues in trading and with it, the controversy around High-Frequency Trading. In recent years, there have been many discussions and analyses of how high-frequency trading may affect the financial market – but still without any clear conclusions. Leaving these opinions behind, many adjustments have already been made in the US and Europe - both to regulations and market rules, impacting not only High-Frequency Trading but general electronic trading as well. These rules and regulations are the result of technological developments in electronic trading and more specifically, High-Frequency Trading and the practice of Payments for Order Flow. The question remains as to how deep regulations should go, especially in the case of HFT which can be severely affected by harsh regulatory requirements or procedures. Because two of the most important issues in HFT are time and information, some of the rules and regulations affect aspects such as not only what type of information and how it should be gathered, but also clock synchronisation and time-stamp granularity. Another issue that may be considered controversial in the field of HFT (although it is not a practice limited to HFT) is Payment For Order Flows. Under this mechanism, wholesale market makers pay brokers for their client’s order flow – a practice that performed in great amounts and at high speeds may give a considerable level of “inside” information. Regulations, especially from ESMA (MiFID II). try in great part to thus mitigate the practice of Payments For Order Flows.
The aim of this paper is to present technological advancements in the field of trading communications used, not only by HFT firms, but also by exchanges. Additionally, the objective is to underline some challenges regarding regulatory changes that try to adapt to the current level of technology – for example, those related to clock synchronisation and data processing. One last issue brought forward is the possibility of converting markets from continuous-time auctions to discrete-time auctions - a concept that is aimed at liquidating the speed advantage and competition only to price level and hence, eliminating HFT advantages.
Adriana Manolică, Corina-Elena Mititiuc and Teodora Roman
We hear more and more often that positive things make our life more beautiful and make us more optimistic. But is it really true? If until a few years ago, the products had usual names, now it is desired for them to have a catchy name that would remain in the memory of the target audience. In this research I have analysed the attitude that young people have towards energy drinks with negative brand names, the impact of these energy drinks on them and also the influence they have on the decisional act of purchase. Among secondary objectives was the establishment of the notoriety of energy drinks that have negative names in the case of young people. Another secondary objective consisted in the comparative analysis of the impact that energy drinks with negative names have on men and women. Also, for the determination of the attitude that young people have towards energy drinks with negative names, it was necessary to get one at the time the feelings, the conviction offered by these energizers and also the intent of buying them among young people.
This paper aims to the analysis of the most common methods of controlled transactions, and the interpretation of the arm’s length principle under the view of the tax income comparison between countries with high and low tax rates. Moreover, the factors of comparability scrutinized with a mathematical approach which shows how the tax factors interact within the countries’ economies in the frame of a global view.