The objectives of this study were to determine the results of the analysis of single and double outdoor badminton men’s matches and to determine the relationship between technical and tactical aspects in a study organized by the BWF (Badminton Word Federation), on a sand surface. Twenty men’s singles matches were recorded using video cameras and analysed with a Dartfish video analysis software package. Along with this, percentages of use of technical elements were analysed by comparing the different modalities. For the single format Lob, Clear, Drop, Smash, Drive were used, different from the double format that used Lob, Clear, Drop, Smash, Drive. The study confirmed the applicability of computerized notation analysis to determine the characteristics of Outdoor Badminton on sand.
The popularity of physique sports is increasing, yet there are currently few comprehensive nutritional guidelines for these athletes. Physique sport now encompasses more than just a short phase before competition and offseason guidelines have recently been published. Therefore, the goal of this review is to provide an extensive guide for male and female physique athletes in the contest preparation and recovery period. As optimal protein intake is largely related to one’s skeletal muscle mass, current evidence supports a range of 1.8-2.7 g/kg. Furthermore, as a benefit from having adequate carbohydrate to fuel performance and activity, low-end fat intake during contest preparation of 10-25% of calories allows for what calories remain in the “energy budget” to come from carbohydrate to mitigate the negative impact of energy restriction and weight loss on training performance. For nutrient timing, we recommend consuming four or five protein boluses per day with one consumed near training and one prior to sleep. During competition periods, slower rates of weight loss (≤0.5% of body mass per week) are preferable for attenuating the loss of fat-free mass with the use of intermittent energy restriction strategies, such as diet breaks and refeeds, being possibly beneficial. Additionally, physiological and psychological factors are covered, and potential best-practice guidelines are provided for disordered eating and body image concerns since physique athletes present with higher incidences of these issues, which may be potentially exacerbated by certain traditional physique practices. We also review common peaking practices, and the critical transition to the post-competition period.
Recovered Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest (rOHCA) population is heterogenous. Few studies focused on outcomes in the rOHCA subgroup with proven significant coronary artery disease (SigCAD). We aimed to characterize this subgroup and study the determinants of in-hospital mortality.
Retrospective study of consecutive rOHCA patients submitted to coronary angiography. Only patients with SigCAD were included.
60 patients were studied, 85% were male, mean age was 62.6 ± 12.1 years. In-hospital mortality rate was 43.3%. Patients with diabetes and history of stroke were less likely to survive. Significant univariate predictors of in-hospital mortality were further analysed separately, according to whether they were present at hospital admission or developed during hospital evolution. At hospital admission, initial non-shockable rhythm, low-flow time>12min, pH<7.25mmol/L and lactates >4.75mmol/L were the most relevant predictors and therefore included in a score tested by Kaplan-Meyer. Patients who had 0/4 criteria had 100% chance of survival till hospital discharge, 1/4 had 77%, 2/4 had 50%, 3/4 had 25%. Patients with all 4 criteria had 0% survival. During in-hospital evolution, a pH<7.35 at 24h, lactates>2mmol/L at 24h, anoxic brain injury and persistent hemodynamic instability proved significant. Patients who had 0/4 of these in-hospital criteria had 100% chance of survival till hospital discharge, 1/4 had 94%, 2/4 had 47%, 3/4 had 25%. Patients with all 4 criteria had 0% survival. Contrarily, CAD severity and ventricular dysfunction didn’t significantly correlate to the outcome.
Classic prehospital variables retain their value in predicting mortality in the specific group of OHCA with SigCAD. In-hospital evolution variables proved to add value in mortality prediction. Combining these simple variables in risk scores might help refining prognostic prediction in these patients’s subset.
Hypernatremia is a commonly associated electrolyte disturbance in sepsis and septic shock patients in the ICU. The objective of this study was to identify the prognostic value of hypernatremia in sepsis and septic shock
Material and Methods
A prospective study conducted on sepsis and septic shock patients diagnosed prior to admission in the ICU in King Hamad University Hospital, Bahrain from January 1st 2017 to February 28th 2019. Data including age, sex, comorbidities, source of sepsis, sodium levels on days one, three, and seven. Data was correlated with the outcome (survival/death and the length of ICU stay).
Patients included were 168, 110 survived, and 58 died. Hypernatraemia at day seven was associated with significantly higher mortality (P= 0.03). Hypernatraemia at Day1was associated with a significantly prolonged stay in the ICU (p= 0.039).Multivariate analysis to identify the independent predictors of mortality revealed that immunosuppression and hypernatraemia at Day7 proved to be independent predictors of mortality (P= 0.026 and 0.039 respectively).
Hypernatremia can be an independent predictor of poor outcome in septic and septic shock patients in the ICU.
The patient in critical condition, regardless of the cause of admission, continues to be a challenge for health systems due to the high mortality that it reports. There is a need to identify some marker of early obtaining, easy to interpret and with high relevance in the prognosis of these patients.
To determine the prognostic value of serum lactate in an Intensive Care Unit (ICU).
One hundred and forty-five patients admitted to an ICU were enrolled in the study. The Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE) prognosis score, Sequential Organ Failure Assessment, hemodynamic support need, mechanical ventilation, cause of admission, stay in ICU, analytical and physiological variables were determined. The probability of survival of patients who had elevated and normal serum lactate levels was calculated. The risk of dying was determined using the Cox regression model.
Twenty-eight patients died (19%) in the ICU. The serum lactate value was higher in the group of patients with trauma, infections, APACHE II and high creatinine levels; as well as with decreased mean arterial blood pressure, need for hemodynamic support and mechanical ventilation. The survival capacity was higher in patients who had normal serum lactate. Serum lactate was the sole independent predictor of mortality (AHR 1.28 [1.07-1.53], p = 0.008).
Patient assessment through the determination of serum lactate levels provides useful information in the initial evaluation of the critical patient.
The purpose of this analysis was to quantify the probability of achieving a top-3 finishing position during 800-m races at a global championship, based on dispersion of the runners during the first and second laps and the difference in split times between laps. Overall race times, intermediate and finishing positions and 400 m split times were obtained for 43 races over 800 m (21 men’s and 22 women’s) comprising 334 individual performances, 128 of which resulted in higher positions (top-3) and 206 the remaining positions. Intermediate and final positions along with times, the dispersion of the runners during the intermediate and final splits (SS1 and SS2), as well as differences between the two split times (Dsplits) were calculated. A logistic regression model was created to determine the influence of these factors in achieving a top-3 position. The final position was most strongly associated with SS2, but also with SS1 and Dsplits. The Global Significance Test showed that the model was significant (p < 0.001) with a predictive ability of 91.08% and an area under the curve coefficient of 0.9598. The values of sensitivity and specificity were 96.8% and 82.5%, respectively. The model demonstrated that SS1, SS2 and Dplits explained the finishing position in the 800-m event in global championships.
The aims of this study were to (1) compare the immediate post-treatment effects of an instructional video versus a self-preferred program on the hip range of motion and a pressure pain threshold using two different density roller balls, and (2) compare the effects of the two roller balls on those variables. Forty adults were randomly allocated into four groups: (1) MB1-video, (2) MB1-self-preferred, (3) MBX-video, and (4) MBX-self-preferred. Participants followed a video or a self-preferred program using either a moderate (MB1) or a hard (MBX) density ball. Main outcomes were passive hip internal rotation, external rotation, and a pressure pain threshold. For MB1, the video produced greater outcomes than the self-program for external rotation (10◦ versus 2◦), internal rotation (7◦ versus 2◦), and the pain threshold (210 kPa versus 44 kPa). For MBX, the video produced greater outcomes than the self-program for external rotation (8◦ versus 1◦), internal rotation (5◦ versus 1◦), and the pain threshold (184 kPa versus 30 kPa). When comparing roller balls, the MB1 produced greater outcomes than the MBX for external rotation (10◦ versus 8◦), internal rotation (7◦ versus 5◦), and the pain threshold (210 kPa versus 184 kPa) with the video. For the self-preferred program, the MB1 produced greater outcomes for external rotation (2◦ versus 1◦), internal rotation (2◦ versus 1◦), and the pain threshold (44 kPa versus 30 kPa). The instructional video and a moderate density ball produced greater immediate post-treatment outcomes than the self-program and a hard density ball. Professionals should consider using the video to teach technique and match clients to a specific density-type roller ball.
The aim of this study was threefold: 1) to assess the configuration of an elite reserve soccer team, 2) to compare physical fitness performance of promoted and new players according to the playing position, and 3) to analyze the level of competitive participation attained by these players. We considered physical fitness tests (5 m and 15 m sprint, countermovement jump [CMJ] and aerobic endurance) performed by 192 players (age = 20.2 ± 2.3 years) enrolled in the reserve team of a Spanish La Liga club from 1994 to 2013. The players were classified according to the previous club criterion (promoted from the soccer academy and new players signed from other clubs), b) their playing position, and c) the competitive level attained until the 2016/2017 season (Spanish 1st and 2nd Divisions and the remaining competition levels). The proportion of promoted and new players was similar (p = 0.47). Overall, no substantial differences (unclear-small) were found in physical fitness performance between promoted and new players. Considering the playing position, promoted lateral defenders (LDs) showed better sprinting (ES = moderate) and CMJ (ES = moderate) performance than new LDs. In addition, promoted central midfielders (CMs) demonstrated better performance in the 5 m sprint and the CMJ (ES = moderate) than new CMs. The percentage of players who later competed in the Spanish 1st and 2nd Divisions was greater in promoted players compared to new players (p = 0.006). Physical fitness performance did not determine the selection of new players in a soccer elite reserve team. We may conclude that soccer academies should prioritize the selection and the training process of youth soccer players.
The aim of this study was to update the validity of the Taekwondo Anaerobic Intermittent Kick Test compared with the 30-s Wingate anaerobic test as the "Gold-Standard", squat jump and countermovement jump tests. The second objective was to examine whether this new specific test would be able to effectively discriminate between elite taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels. Twenty taekwondo athletes (15 males and 5 females) participated in the validation component, whereas 18 (14 males and 4 females) and 16 (13 males and 3 females) athletes participated in the reliability analysis of the Wingate anaerobic test and jumping tests, respectively. They performed these tests on two separate occasions (i.e., test-retest), in addition to the Taekwondo Anaerobic Intermittent Kick Test. To establish test’s discriminatory capability (i.e., construct validity), two subgroups were identified based on their international and national taekwondo performance: 10 elite (8 males and 2 females) and 9 sub-elite (7 males and 2 females) athletes. Wingate anaerobic test and jumping tests performances showed excellent reliability (ICC > 0.90, SEM < 5% for most variables). Significant correlations between Taekwondo Anaerobic Intermittent Kick Test, Wingate anaerobic test, and jumping tests’ variables were mostly "large". Elite taekwondo athletes showed greater taekwondo test performances compared with their sub-elite counterparts (p < 0.001). Receiving operating characteristic analysis indicated that the taekwondo specific test was able to effectively discriminate between elite and sub-elite taekwondo athletes. Overall, the findings of the current study support the concurrent validity of the Taekwondo Anaerobic Intermittent Kick Test. In particular, the Taekwondo Anaerobic Intermittent Kick Test showed good ability to effectively discriminate between taekwondo athletes of different competitive levels.
The aim of this study was twofold: i) to compare the rate of perceived exertion (RPE) and the frequencies of technical actions per minute in different small-sided games (SSGs) between under-14 and under-16 age groups, and ii) to compare the RPE and the frequencies of technical actions per minute between 1 x 1, 2 x 2, 3 x 3, 4 x 4 and 5 x 5 formats within age groups. Twenty young male basketball players from the same club (N = 10, from under-14; N = 10, from under-16) competing at the national level voluntarily participated in this study. Five different SSGs (1 x 1, 2 x 2, 3 x 3, 4 x 4 and 5 x 5) were played twice on courts of the same relative area and were compared in terms of the RPE and technical actions. The number of technical-tactical actions per minute, i.e. conquered balls (CB), received balls (RB), lost balls (LB), attacking balls/passes (AB), shots (S), rebounds (R), and the RPE were collected for each player for each SSG session. The results revealed that most of the differences between age groups were considered trivial/small and/or unclear for all SSG formats, though likely moderate differences between age groups were found in 1 x 1 and 2 x 2 SSGs, revealing that young players had greater frequencies of received, conquered, and lost balls. Within-age-group comparisons also showed moderate-to-large increases in technical actions during smaller formats than during larger ones. The main evidence of this study revealed that age group seemed not to largely influence the RPE or technical actions during different SSGs. However, smaller formats moderately-to-largely increased the number of technical actions. Interestingly, the biggest format (5 x 5) largely increased the RPE in comparison to the remaining formats. As a conclusion, technical actions and the RPE were influenced more by the format of play than by the age group.