Over the last decade the number of studies on public transit accessibility has significantly increased. The aim of the study was to analyse the scope of application of measurements of the dynamic time accessibility in transportation systems for evaluation purposes. It was assumed that the indicator is a feasible measure for basic analysis however additional indicators are needed for reliable assessment. The study included assessing access to the global centre of Warsaw and to local and district centres in particular units. Public transit accessibility was analysed using schedule-based travel time and the population data statistic. The results of the study confirm the dynamic character of public transit time accessibility and its usefulness as a measure. Spatial and transit barriers were identified in local distribution centres and public transit operation. The work presented in the paper highlights the relevance of the in-depth evaluation of the public transit system in relation to the major congestion problems in Warsaw.
The revival of post-industrial areas, understood as a factor determining contemporary urban development, is a key process in regeneration. Such areas attract strategic renewal projects, because despite their perfect location next to city centres, they have long been inaccessible to city residents. The backbone of the projects is provided by programmes laying out the future functions of such areas and their target users. In the past, mono-functional districts were popular but their numerous weaknesses have meant that mixed use and diversity are increasingly being introduced into urban areas today. Mixed use and diversity underlie the urban design movement known as the New Urbanism. This article assesses the role of mixed-use and diversity as the New Urbanism principle guiding the renewal of post-industrial areas. It is based on desk research and a comparative analysis of two case studies: the Paris Rive Gauche (France) and the New Centre of Lodz (Poland). The article concludes that regeneration based on the New Urbanism principle of functional and user diversity leads to an effective renewal of run-down urban areas. The applicability of other New Urbanism principles stressing the need to ensure harmony between an urban design strategy and the human scale in the revival of urban neighbourhoods is also worth considering in the long term.
The paper addresses the role of local spatial planning in the implementation of the heritage related goals of Framework Convention on the Protection and Sustainable Development of the Carpathians. The paper analyses heritage related regulations in the spatial plans of three historic Carpathian towns as compared to the results of heritage inventories made for two pilot areas in the Czech and Ukrainian Carpathians. On the basis of the analyses we conclude that local planning regulations are to a great extent in line with the declared goals of the Convention and therefore can play a more significant role in their implementation whereas the concept of a separate Carpathian Heritage Inventory, in spite of its initial intentions, is of little use for these purposes. In the end we call for the use of local spatial plans as tools for the protection of the Carpathian heritage in future activities of the countries party to the Carpathian Convention.
Energy poverty can be understood as the inability to secure a socially- and materially-necessitated level of energy services in the home. This article presents the results of empirical research on energy poverty in Bytom. The study was carried out using a questionnaire delivered to 121 persons living in Bytom. The questionnaire consisted of 20 single and multiple-choice questions. The primary aim of the research was to achieve typological representativeness by identifying the differences between six age categories. Some of the results confirm what is already known about the relationships between the age of the head of household and energy poverty, while others are surprising. On their basis it is possible to formulate some recommendations for local anti-poverty energy policies.
Area-based interventions are one of the ways of addressing problems of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods. In this paper we take the example of the German urban development support scheme (Städtebauförderung) with the purpose of determining the factors behind the spatial distribution of funds from this policy. The results show a positive association with unemployment rate, and a negative one with the dynamics of population and jobs. This suggests that the allocation of funds to a large extent resembled the distribution of structurally weak areas in Germany. Using geographically weighted regression, we found spatial differences in the goodness of fit of the model as well as in coefficients of explanatory variables. Finally, we also point out some differences between specific programmes forming part of the urban development support scheme.
The paper deals with the issues of the symbolic dimension of a city created from the urban and social subsystems. The city and its landscape are understood here as a system of signs functioning in two distinct orders of reality, yet still dependent on each other, i.e. the material order and the imaginary one. In the paper, we ask questions about the role of the symbol in the contemporary process of creating the specificity of a place. We also speak about the identity of a place, about endowing a place with features of familiarity, about the social need to recognise the symbol. The presence of a dragon, a creature born in the human imagination, in the urban space of Krakow was chosen as an example of the symbolic dimension of the city. Krakow is a historic city, the former capital of Poland, a city rich in diverse symbolic capitals. The dragon is a symbol of Krakow. It is present in the legend about the city’s origins, and is also commonly present in the material space of Krakow. It is part of the city’s identity.
In recent decades, the number of craft breweries in the United States has increased dramatically, increasing from around a thousand in 1996 to over six thousand today. In order to minimize start-up and initial operating costs, many craft breweries have located in older buildings in economically distressed neighborhoods. Craft breweries are particularly adept at engaging in adaptive reuse, with the result that they occupy buildings that were previously once churches, cinemas, fire stations, etc. This investment by craft breweries, in conjunction with investment by other businesses (as well as the public sector), has resulted in the revitalization of many of these neighborhoods. Neighborhoods that were once full of abandoned buildings and suffered from social problems such as high crime rates have become destinations for residents and tourists alike. At the same time, however, there is a dark side to this neighborhood revitalization as rising real estate values has forced many established, often low-income, residents to leave these neighborhoods. In this paper, I examine the growth of the craft brewing in the United States and the preference of many craft breweries for inexpensive building space in economically distressed neighborhoods.
All of us wish to breathe clean air. In recent years, a problem of growing importance is how to combat particulates which cause smog and are harmful to the human environment. International forums have adopted documents to prevent carpet emissions. As a result, public authorities in individual states have to tackle the tough challenge of implementing new regulations via their legal framework and administrative practice. The slogans “Clean Air” and “Right to Clean Air” trigger off grassroots movements which strive to coax the units of local government to take decisive action on a pro-ecological transport policy. While mindful of the influence of polluted air on human health, local interest groups have social control of authorities. The objectives of the article are to present the legal framework for the ‘smog alert’ and free public transport initiatives, and to analyse how local authorities have implemented free public transport, whether for all a city’s residents or just for the drivers who decide to forgo driving and have to show valid vehicle registration certificates to use public transport for free. The paper draws upon interviews and a critical review of substantive literature about the techniques for reducing smog. A scientific approach is adopted to the major body of work. Additionally, the analysis compares the pro-ecological activities of local governments in selected Polish cities. It focuses directly on the subjects managing public transport and the operators offering transport services.
In the past nine hundred years Bitola has undergone a string of administrative and political rises and falls. In the course of the 16th century the city grew to have a very large population and become a huge economic and geopolitical centre of the large province of Rumelia in the Ottoman Empire. However, as a result of some overwhelming political and military events that played out during the 20th century (the dissolution of the Ottoman Empire, the Balkan wars, WW1, WW2 and other economic, political, technical and technological developments that occurred in the world and in the country) Bitola was reduced to a mere local city in economic, geopolitical and population terms. The immediate economic and population expansion of Bitola is presented through an exact numeric and cartographic overview of spatial-temporal changes in the city’s development in the past two centuries. For the purposes of rendering a more accurate image, we have compared Bitola’s population, administrative and geopolitical role with a number of major Balkan cities.
Large shopping centres have become an important element of the urban landscape and a major competitor with other forms of retail sale. Their large offer, including a wide variety of products and services, special offers and tasting campaigns, large car parks, and own-brand fuel stations as well as various services points located in shopping centres successfully win customers.
The present study focuses on Polish shopping centres (malls), particularly those located in Krakow. A shopping centre (mall) is defined as “a commercial property designed, constructed and managed as a single business entity, comprising stores/shops and common areas, with a minimum leasable area of 5 thousand m2 (GLA) and accommodating at least 10 stores/shops”.
The purpose of this paper is to examine the behaviour of prospective customers of shopping centres, their preferences when selecting their shopping locations, and declarations on the use of additional functions offered by commercial and services enterprises. Furthermore, the paper identifies non-commercial functions of shopping malls of particular interest to prospective customers. The paper also presents a profile of a consumer who has a preference for shopping and spending their free time in malls.
The conclusions are based on literature on the subject and the findings of a survey conducted by the authors of the paper. A questionnaire was used as a research tool. The survey covered 1756 respondents – mainly residents of Krakow. In order to broaden the scope of the conclusions, the results of surveys and studies of other authors were also used.