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Subject and purpose of work: The article presents an analysis of the use of municipal bonds in financing the development activities of local governments in Poland.

Materials and methods: The study uses data from the Ministry of Finance, the European Central Bank, the Central Statistical Office and the CATALYST platform.

Results: The results of the research show that the level of using bonds by local governments in Poland is lower than the EU average. Poland’s accession to the EU and the inflow of structural funds significantly increased local governments’ interest in the implementation of bonds to fund investments, especially in 2008-2010.

Conclusions: A significant part of funds from the issues of municipal bonds was allocated to regional development projects, mainly infrastructure. In 2008-2012 the value of newly issued municipal bonds increased, however, after that the number and value of new issues significantly decreased.


Gambling activity is a multifaceted phenomenon. Gambling is a special field of business. The government authorities ascribe the right to a monopoly of this area of economic activity. The randomness and financial size of gambling foster the development of the grey market. In addition to the economic effect, the moral dimension of this type of activity is an extremely important aspect. The Customs and Tax Control Service supervises the functioning of the gambling market in Poland.

Subject and purpose of work: The article is devoted to the issue of gambling. The aim of the research was to present the activities of the Customs and Tax Control Service in the field of legal and illegal gambling.

Materials and methods: The study methods used were literature review, legal acts, documents of the Ministry of Finance, statistic data, using quantitive and systems analysis.

Results: As a result, the directions of the Customs and Tax Control Service activities were identified in the field of gambling market control.

Conclusions: The activities of Customs and Tax Control Service bring results in fighting illegal gambling, protecting players, and raising social awareness of the dangers of using services of illegal gaming operators.


Subject and purpose of work: The paper addresses the issue of the attitude of students from Southern Podlasie to their region. Its purpose is to present the stance of young people who are permanent residents in the Eastern Borderlands to their civilizational identity.

Materials and methods: The results shown in the present article come from the research carried out among students of Pope John Paul II State School of Higher Education in Biała Podlaska. A questionnaire designed by the current author contained 42 closed, semi-open and open questions. It was conducted in May – 2017 in the auditorium among 214 third year students from the following areas: nursing – 48, sociology – 29, pedagogy – 41, national security – 63, tourism and recreation – 33.

Results: The study demonstrated that 83.3% of the students who identify themselves with the Western civilization and 72.0% of the respondents who identify themselves with both the Eastern and Western civilizations declare to be fully attached to the region. Slightly more than half of the respondents (51.4%) are convinced that they live in a region characterized by cultural diversity. This may suggest that the region of Southern Podlasie is characterized by the presence of the elements defining both the Western and the Eastern civilization.

Conclusions: When summarizing the attitude of the students to the region, it should be noted that over 70% of them fully identify with it. Religion has the greatest influence on the respondents’ regional consciousness. This element should be recognized as the basic factor characterizing the students, which proves that the basic feature which identifies Southern Podlasie is the diversity of denominations.


Subject and purpose of work: This paper examines empirical implications of exchange rates in the economy of the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA). In particular, it aims to identify and evaluate potential macroeconomic signs and symptoms of economic disturbance so as to determine macroeconomic variables that influence spot exchange rate (1GBP = SAR), and to examine how fixed exchange rate regime influences exports and imports in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia (KSA).

Materials and methods: Multiple regression and simple linear regression models were used to analyze the data from 1975 to 2018.

Results: The study found a weak and insignificant relationship between spot exchange rate and unemployment rate, inflation rate, exports, and economic growth, along with strong relations with imports, investment, and current account variation in the KSA.

Conclusions: The study recommends the adoption of a floating exchange rate regime in the KSA. It has revealed the signs and symptoms of increases of the inflation rate with decreasing exports, increasing imports, decreasing of current account (current account deficit threat), and small increases of investment.


Subject and purpose of work: The purpose of this article is to verify the hypothesis of the occurrence of political business cycles at the self-governmental level in Poland.

Materials and methods: The article presents a quantitative analysis of expenditures on remuneration in the administration of Polish self-governments at the county (district) level (in the period 2007–2018) and at province (regional) level (in the period 1999–2018) with the use of Arellano-Bond and LSDVC estimators.

Results: The panel data analysis makes it possible to conclude that in Polish self-governments cyclical fluctuations of expenditure on remuneration can be observed. The increase in salaries depends on the power of the ruling coalition as well as unemployment and the output gap in a region. In the case of provinces and counties, also the increase of investment expenditures significantly affects the increase of salaries.

Conclusions: The results of the estimation of models clearly point to the presence of cyclical distortions in remuneration in public administration, which are caused by the upcoming elections.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the study is to assess the marketing potential of websites of rural tourism facilities’ in Poland.

Materials and methods: It was assumed that the marketing potential of a website provided the basis for placing it in global popularity rankings. The study involved 1000 paid domain websites. Each website was analysed using four tools which yielded values of selected indices, including Serpstat Visibility, Alexa Global Rank and SimilarWeb Global Rank.

Results: Almost half of the websites of rural tourism facilities’ obtained 0 or 1 point in the Open Page Rank index evaluation. For 764 websites from the analysed set, the Serpstat Visibility index value was not available, while in the remaining cases it was very low. The websites either reached distant positions in Alexa and SimilarWeb rankings or were not included in them at all.

Conclusions: The adopted research model does not allow for absolute assessment of the actual marketing potential of websites. However, the study confirmed that it was not used.


Subject and purpose of work: The article presents the results of research into the dynamics of changes in income distribution as measured by means of GDP per capita for the regions Bulgaria and Slovakia using quantitative methods.

Materials and methods: The transition matrix was used as a research tool. As some authors note, since most of the research is limited to the assessment and analysis of global trends, this does not allow to distinguish the situation in which regions maintain their relative position from the situations in which the general distribution of income changes slightly while the location of some regions changes significantly. In this case, individual regions may differ considerably in their rate of development even in the periods when no convergence was observed.

Results: The approach adopted in this study made it possible to verify the degree of diversification of the economic strength of the regions examined and conduct a comparative analysis of the dynamics of changes in the transition matrices.

Conclusions: It was concluded that the regions of Slovakia and Bulgaria are developing at the same pace. Income stability can be observed. It is justifiable to look for and workout modern tools that will enable tracking changes in regional development.


Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the work is to define the importance of banks in the development of agricultural holdings and the role they play in rural environment.

Materials and methods: The relevant material was analysed on the basis of domestic literature concerning a range of banking products offered to natural and legal persons and by the inductive-deductive method.

Results: The source of data used for conducting the analyses and drawing conclusions is the information obtained from the Cooperative Bank in Bielsk Podlaski.

Conclusions: 1. The goal of cooperative banks is to provide the inhabitants of villages with access to banking services, including credits with attractive interest rates. 2. The services of a cooperative bank are most frequently used by farmers, craftsmen and teachers. 3. In Poland, cooperative banks operate on the basis of: the Foreign Exchange Act, the Payment Services Act, the Act on Freedom of Economic Activities, the Act on the National Bank of Poland, the Act on the National Guarantee Fund, the Law on Bankruptcy and the Rehabilitation Act, as well as on the resolutions of the Management Board of the National Bank of Poland.