The proposed self-adjusting mechanism consists of a carousel rotor with a vertical axis consisting of two kinematically connected flat blades. The torque of this rotor can change the position of the directing unit and additionally the position of the main propeller in order to direct the wind stream or save the main rotor when the wind is too strong. The theory, principles of operation, and the properties of the self-adjusting system were illustrated by formulas and graphs. Based on research conducted in a boundary layer wind tunnel, the values of the aerodynamic coefficients of the flat blades were determined, and then the power and propeller torque of the rotor were found as a function of the angle of wind attack. A computational procedure provides kinematical and force relations as well as the resulting torque diagrams of the rotor. An example of the use and the design structure of a self-adjusting unit in the case of a horizontal axis wind turbine is presented.
The adsorption of Diphenolic acid (DPA), 2,4-Dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), and 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA) were examined in aqueous solution using activated carbon rice straw. The rice straw was activated by using two reagents, zinc chloride and phosphoric acid and named as RSZ, RSP, respectively. The results showed that both carbons have a relatively high adsorption capacity. Concerning the adsorption kinetic, the second-order model has better fit than the first model to experimental data. The adsorption yield of both carbons increased in the order: DPA < 2,4-D < MCPA. The pore volume diffusion model satisfactorily fitted the experiment on both carbons. Furthermore, solution pH has a high influence on the adsorption capacity for both carbons. The adsorption mechanism of selected pollutants onto carbon samples has been controlled by dispersion interaction π-π electrons and electrostatic interaction, moreover, the contribution of pore volume diffusion is the controlling mechanism of the overall rate of adsorption.
Water based paints are increasingly attracting interest mainly with a view to reducing air pollution with volatile organic compounds (VOC). However, the protective properties of water-based paints are inferior to those of solvent-based paints and so new ways to increase the resistance of water-based systems are sought. The present contribution describes the preparation and testing of environmentally friendly anti-corrosion paints based on novel water-based self-crosslinking acrylate latexes containing appropriate pigments and ZnO or MgO nanoparticles at a concentration of 1.5 % (with respect to the monomers) compared to the same systems free from the nanoparticles. Both the effect of the MeO nanoparticles and the effects of the pigment species and particle shapes on the paint film properties were examined. The MeO nanoparticles were found to improve all the properties tested. The latexes with MgO exhibited the highest resistance to flash corrosion while the latexes with ZnO exhibited the highest anticorrosion resistance. Furthermore, the systems with the calcium-aluminium polyphosphosilicate based pigment were superior to all the remaining systems in this respect. It is concluded that binders with nanoparticles can be used as a basis for anticorrosion coatings provided that a suitable pigment is selected.
Zeolites are nanoporous alumina silicates in a framework with cations, exhibiting ion-exchange properties with metal ions making them possible antimicrobial materials. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of ion-exchanged zeolites and the toxic potential of these materials. Zeolite-Co2+ and Li+ exhibited the most effective inhibition on Staphylococcus aureus growth than in other microorganisms (Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeroginosa) in low concentrations. Zeolite-Cu2+ presented higher zone of inhibition when tested against Candida albicans, while Zeolite-Zn2+ showed similar effectiveness among all the microorganisms. When ion-exchanged zeolites were used in effective concentrations to achieve antimicrobial activity, no alterations against bioindicators organisms as Artemia sp. and L. sativa were found and, in addition, they have non-significant result in terms of DNA cleavage activity. Zeolites have advantage of releasing slowly the metals loaded and this characteristic can to be considered promising as potential antimicrobial materials in concentrations safe for use.
In this study, optimal conditions to form cellulose-MgO nanocomposite with antibacterial properties were evaluated. Applying the Taguchi method, 9 experiments were designed and the effects of different concentrations of biopolymers cellulose (0.5, 1 and 2 mg/ml), MgO nanoparticles (2, 4 and 8 mg/ml) and stirring times (30, 60 and 90 min) on antibacterial activity of synthesized nanocomposites were assessed. The characterizations of products were investigated by dynamic light scattering (DLS), raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA). The results showed that the nano-composite produced in the conditions of experiment 9 (MgO 8 mg/ml, cellulose 2 mg/ml and stirring time of 60 min) has the strongest antibacterial activity. The outcomes of both methods of colony forming units (CFU) and disc diffusion indicated that the antibacterial activity of cellulose-MgO nanocomposite was significantly higher than its components (P <0.05). Thermal analysis indicated improvement in the thermal stability of the cellulose biopolymer after the formation of the nanocomposite. Due to the improvement of the antibacterial properties of cellulose-MgO nanocomposite compared to its components, we can use it as a new antibacterial agent in the fields of pharmaceutical, medicine and dentistry.
Contemporary architectural transparency, understood as the optical property of the construction material, is constantly being redefined and, over the last two decades, new design trends have developed. These trends are the result of: (i) dynamic technological progress; (ii) advancement in the field of materials science; (iii) changes in the attitude of clients and users. Transparency is no longer limited to specific functions (e.g. illumination of the interior) but has become a tool of formal expression itself. This paper defines most recent trends, which are divided into two main types: (i) optical-perceptual – relying on phenomenal effects, (ii) geometrical – that differentiate the large group of spatial transformations developed from what was initially flat planar façade.
The present work examines the influence of the leaching conditions on the release of various chemical elements from a cementitious material obtained by solidification of an industrial waste rejection of Algeria. Toxicity Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy coupled with energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis SEM-EDX analyses were employed to characterize the waste and the stabilized/solidified materials. Than several formulations were prepared with different percent of waste ranging from 0 % to 30 %. To evaluate the influence of leaching conditions on the release of chemical ions (Zn2+, Pb2+, Cl-, Mg2+, Ca2+, Na+, K+ and SO42−) contained in the stabilized and solidified materials, the Acid Neutralization Capacity (ANC), the Pore Water (PW) and Monolith Leaching Tests (MLT) have been carried out. The leaching tests (ANC, PW and MLT) have shown a low metal leachability. However, the lowest released amount was observed for the MLT.
The nineteenth century was a period of ground-breaking events in the history of humanity relating to the industrial revolution, scientific discoveries, knowledge development and social changes. It was also a time when new types of commercial buildings were being formed and transformations of those that had existed for centuries were taking place. The aim of this article is to present the problems of the Central Market Hall in Budapest by Samu Pecz and compare its architectural solutions with selected nineteenth-century constructions serving the same purpose elsewhere in Europe.
In this study, 1 wt.% Pd/Al2O3 sphere catalysts were prepared using the wet-impregnation (WI) and deposition-precipitation (DP) method using palladium chloride and tetraamminepalladium (II) nitrate as salt precursors. All catalysts were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. The catalytic activity in toluene oxidation under gas-phase conditions was measured. The obtained results showed that metal dispersion and catalytic activity were strongly dependent on the salt precursor and method of catalyst preparation. The use of tetraamminepalladium (II) nitrate as the precursor presented smaller particle size, an enhanced dispersion and higher specific surface area. Moreover, the catalyst prepared with this precursor also showed higher catalytic activity than that prepared with palladium chloride. At 1 wt.% Pd loading, complete oxidation of toluene was achieved at 250°C. However, there was only approximately 80–90% efficient at the same temperature when the catalyst was prepared with palladium chloride as the precursor.
The paper presents results of the research focused on the characterization of two types of coatings – WC–FeCrAl and WC–WB–Co. The properties of the WC–FeCrAl coating (Co and Ni free) were compared against the WC–WB–Co coating to see if it could be used as an environmentally more suitable substitute for conventional Co and Ni containing powders. The coatings were applied by HVOF technology. The influence of thermal cyclic stress on the hardness, adhesion of coatings and their corrosion resistance was determined. A change in the phase composition of coatings after thermal cyclic loading was also determined.