Research purpose. The regime of maritime spaces as a general rule ‘is determined by the principles and norms of international law relating to the oceans and enshrined in the Geneva Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1958 and the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea of 1982(UNCLOS). However, the issue is that UNCLOS practically does not fix any special regime on the Arctic, bearing in mind that the use of the Arctic spaces is rather effectively regulated at the national levels. Arctic issues in this regard lacked in-depth analysis, and no attempts to develop specific norms and approaches with regard to the Arctic region were made, with the exception of Article 234 of UNCLOS, which is related to the right of the coastal States to ‘regulate navigation’ in its Exclusive Economic Zones. The purpose of the current research is to analyse how far a State may go in the process of establishment of the laws and regulations while exercising the right granted by Article 234, with the particular focus made on the position taken by the Russian Federation.
Design / Methodology / Approach. In order to achieve the aims of the research, a descriptive method was chosen as the method for clarification on the legal regime currently applicable in the Russian Arctic Sector, in particular supported by the dogmatic method, in order to understand and explain the position taken by the legislative bodies.
Findings. The result of the research is the attempts to satisfy how having interests and stakes in the region of high overall salience contributes to prioritization by Russian Federation of its rights over the region by restrictions imposed on the navigational freedoms granted to the States by UNCLOS. Additionally, suggestions are made in respect of the possible solutions necessary in order to strike a balance between national interests of the Arctic States and rights of others States to access the area without causing any harm to the environment and security of the region.
Over the last several decades the traditional role of universities in their unique mission in education and research changed to include also the so-called third mission consisting in their active involvement in the socio-economic development of the society. Publicly available data from annual economic report of Czech public universities were analysed to demonstrate the universities´ ability to raise funding from off-budgetary sources which belongs to main characteristics of entrepreneurial university. Off-budgetary sources, where revenues for internal services prevailed, made in 2016 around 16 % of the total income of Czech public universities. The off-budgetary sources include in particular charges for accommodation and board, fees for entrance exam, tuition fees for students that exceed the standard length of studies by more than one year, and tuition fees for studies in a foreign language. The last fees make up to three quarters of all offbudgetary sources at universities that offer studies at medical faculties. The universities´ ability to execute the third role was due to limited availability of data accessed only partially by analysing revenues from knowledge transfer in supplementary activities that involve contractual research, income from licences, educational courses on demand, consultations and counselling. Contractual research in supplementary activities was the most important among the listed activities making up to 8 % of all off-budgetary sources revenues. In international comparison the Czech public universities raise about one half of revenues for R&D from entrepreneurial sources than EU-28 average and only one third compared to German universities. Revenues from license agreements are low making around 0.1 % of all revenues for R&D.
Research purpose. The job types might be potential determinants of subjective well-being (SWB), which is seldom investigated in the current literature. This article examines this relationship by collecting data from the Chinese Household Income Project in 2013 to explore this relationship.
Approach. In line with existing studies on SWB, we apply the ordered probit model and further estimate the effects of different job types on SWB.
Findings. This article demonstrates that individuals employed by Sino-foreign joint enterprises tend to have the lowest SWB. On the contrary, those employed by the public sector and private enterprises are more likely to acquire higher satisfaction.
Practical implications. To conclude, job types are closely linked with SWB and job types should be incorporated as a crucial factor when further analysing the SWB.
Cooperation between and within the companies can be an important success factor. Based on trust, companies at present have created formal and informal network structures in which cooperation between them plays a special role. In the present times, the economic importance of supply chains can be observed in almost every industry regardless size: multinational companies and even small and medium-sized enterprises are actively involved in global value-creating chains. More and more business leaders recognize that when consumers are about to decide on their purchases, not just performance of a company is evaluated but that of the entire supply chain and supply network. Forms of cooperation in the supply chain affect the companies in several ways: we can investigate its impact on growth, operation and thus, on the effectiveness of the supply chain and competitiveness. Both cooperation between and within companies are important in creating the ultimate value added. This paper aims to explore the functional fields in which companies cooperate with each other, i.e. how and in what manner they are connected to each other. Results and conclusions are based on in-depth interviews and a questionnaire filled in by companies in Hungary.
Learning quantitative courses in higher education is difficult because students need to understand complex principles and solve complicated questions. In these courses, new knowledge depends on prior knowledge and when gaps in students’ understanding occur, they are difficult to overcome. The study examines a new model called comprehensive technology-based learning (CTBL) designed to overcome these difficulties.
The problem is addressed by full coverage of the curriculum in a variety of textual and video learning tools, as well as an ongoing process of diagnosis and prognosis, designed to overcome students’ difficulties and knowledge gaps. The study examined the students’ attitudes towards CTBL model relating to three quantitative courses (n1=39, n2=25, n3=18, ntotal). It points out that a quantitative course based on CTBL significantly nurtures students’ learning. Improving learning and overcoming knowledge gaps are influenced by several characteristics: Full coverage of the curriculum, excellent learning experience, repetition of the material without limitations, flexibility to learn outside the classroom, a variety of means to choose which ones are more appropriate, and making learning much easier. Beyond that, the diagnosis and prognosis done by the lecturer cause the instructor to intervene in real time, to solve the students’ difficulties on an ongoing basis.
Electronic payments are considered to be a fast and secure alternative for traditional payment methods. Today, it is impossible to imagine modern bank operations, commercial transactions and other payments without electronic payments. This article shows that electronic payments are not the only means for reducing costs with respect to other payment methods, such as cash, but can also generate significant benefits for increasing economic development and reducing shadow economy. The paper focuses on the development of electronic payments in Georgia and its impact on the economy of the country. Over the decades, the payment systems in Georgia have evolved significantly in line with the technological advancement. Significant progress has been achieved in improving the e-payment systems infrastructure. The evolution of e-payments in Georgia can be characterized by the following: debit (including prepaid) and credit cards, credit and debit transfers compose a core set of noncash payment types commonly used today by consumers and businesses. These core noncash payment types are used both in traditional ways, such as in-person purchases, payroll deposits, and bill payments, and in innovative ways, such as contactless and mobile payments, e-commerce and online bill payments. Using the economic-mathematical analyses of the information taken from the web-page of the National Bank of Georgia and commercial banks’ publications, a mathematical model was built, based on which the positive relationship between e-payments and economic growth in terms of real GDP was shown.
Clusterization has been named as one of the priorities of the development strategy of many European Union countries. Clusterization experts have already hypothesized that clusters of various economic activities are important not only in the formation of regional policy, but they also in a complex way stimulate the whole country’s economic growth from job creation to the development of intellectual property to new innovative industries. These realities show that cluster activity and its results are important not only for cluster participants, but also for the economy of the country in which clusters operate. However, there are currently no reliable and effective tools to validate this hypothesis. In the analysis of the problem and in order to deepen the theoretical knowledge of the object under study, this paper analyses and summarizes systematic, logical and comparative scientific literature, scientific studies, strategic documents and legal acts. Therefore, the purpose of this paper is to provide a theoretical overview of the currently available knowledge on service clusterization and sustainable economic development, to demonstrate the acute absence of relevant theoretical foundations and linkages that would allow to analyse these phenomena, and propose a methodological approach that would allow to expand this field of study.
In this paper, the results of my research are presented that was carried out on a large sample to investigate how people look back at their previous business decisions. After a short literature overview, considering the role of time, the paper deals with the primary research: how people judge their decisions in the short term and in the long run, that is, how confident they are that the right one was chosen applying the available knowledge of facts and conditions connected with or relevant to their situation. Using statistical methods, comparisons were made, for example, based on the respondents’ gender, so it turns out whether gender has an influence on self-confidence or on exactness of judgement. Does the position, that is, the rank matter? Can it be assumed that the farther one gets up the corporate ladder, the more certainty can be observed about their decisions? And what about educational level? Does it influence judgement in a decision? Those who do not regret their decisions after a while, that is, after the original decisions were made, while being in possession of the information available later, can be more successful in business because they made the best decision. Trying to identify such characteristics or factors can be an advantage in the business life.
In this paper, the design and introduction of a framework for multidisciplinary business simulations at the School of Public Administration of Kehl University will be presented. Within Kehl’s Public Administration study program, various subjects like organization, law, human resources, computer sciences, finance, psychology and economics are supported in an interdisciplinary way. Both theoretical and scientific skills as well as soft skills such as teamwork, project management and coordination will be further developed by using an interdisciplinary approach. A framework for multidisciplinary business simulations has been developed to support this interdisciplinary approach. The framework integrates realistic and practical simulations of interdisciplinary case studies into the study program of Public administration at Kehl University. In order to reduce costs for case study development, the framework offers a generic case study pattern. This pattern was purposefully developed and covers very different disciplines in the best possible way so that the students can conduct simulations that are realistic and possible during their studies. Further, two different simulation implementations of the case studies were designed within the framework for multidisciplinary business simulations. A short-term simulation intends to check the ongoing learning success. A long-term simulation aims for giving students feedback concerning their skills just before graduating. The case studies based on the generic case study pattern come from a wide variety of public administration tasks. Examples of currently conceived case studies include e-invoicing, IT-infrastructure for schools and IT-office workplaces. The case studies were developed together with practitioners from municipalities and local agencies in order to create realistic simulations. This addresses the actual complexity of the future working environment of students. The comprehensive application of knowledge learnt in different subjects motivates students to work on these case studies.
Well-conducted recruitment and selection process is extremely important for the organization, permitting in-depth and objective verification of candidates in terms of meeting employer’s expectations and leads to their employment. Up to now, there has been little research on the impact of e-recruitment on the recruitment process as a whole. The present study fills part of this gap by investigating the effect of e-recruitment on the design of the recruitment process. Therefore, the main purpose of the paper is to analyze how new technology has influenced the recruitment process as a whole. The recruitment process will be presented on the example of ItutorGroup. The paper considers the possibilities of including modern technologies in the recruitment and selection strategies of the organization based on a case study method. The case study describes the project of cooperation of the Work Service personnel consultancy with the international organization ItutorGroup. Its selection and recruitment strategy was based on video-recruitment. The findings indicate that e-recruitment transforms the traditional recruitment process into a time- and space-independent, collaborative hiring process. The most significant changes are recorded in the sequence and increased divisibility of main recruitment tasks. For management, the main task is now that of communicating with candidates. Recruitment and selection strategy based on modern technologies requires an experienced and competent team, two unquestionable benefits are: limiting the length of the process in time and possibility to decrease the costs.