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Childlessness – psychological consequences of decisions taken while experiencing infertility

Abstract

The aim of this article is to present the results of original research into psychological consequences for women choosing intentional childlessness as a way of coping with infertility. The study included 87 women who decided to remain childless. Tools used in the study were: the original Attitudes towards Own Infertility Scale; the HDS-M Scale (Zigmond, Snaith); the original Scale for Assessment of Hope as an Emotional State; the Satisfaction with Life Scale SWLS (Diener et al.); the Rosenberg Self Esteem Scale (SES). Significant correlations were found between variables included in the study were found. The analysis comparing psychological variables with sociodemographic variables showed that only the length of time since diagnosis is related to the level of hope. The analysis comparing childless women with those undergoing infertility treatment revealed statistically significant differences in the level of acceptance of one’s infertility (higher in childless women) and in the perception of social support and its types (women undergoing infertility treatment perceived a higher level of support) The cluster analysis indicated that there are three characteristics on which the effectiveness of coping with infertility depend. The conclusions of the study are extremely important in the process of preparing preventive psychology programs for women who make a conscious decision to remain childless.

Open access
Gamification in education – practical solutions for educational courses

Abstract

Gamification can be defined as the use of game design elements in non-game contexts. The aim of this article is to present practical solutions for a gamified educational course. The solutions are based on mechanisms used in online games and on the results of empirical research on motivation. The first part of the article analyzes theories of intrinsic and extrinsic motivation. The second part discusses the motivational aspects of one of the most popular games (World of Warcraft). The final part presents a detailed sample project for a gamified educational course. It proposes that – among classical solutions – a monetary schedule of reinforcement as well as a number of features based on the natural needs to cooperate and compete be included.

Open access
How Czech supervisors engage in the supervisory process on sexual attraction and strategies used to supervise sexual attraction in the work of supervisees

Abstract

Our study investigated how Czech supervisors understand, engage with and supervise therapists in handling sexual attraction. Qualitative interviews were carried out with 13 volunteers in the Czech Republic. Transcripts were analysed using constructivist grounded theory (GT). Findings show that in reflecting on their experience as supervisors, participants stepped into their experience as therapists first. Data shows various factors mediating and influencing the supervision process: the historical and political impact of sexual tabooism and sexual attraction in training and practice; supervisors’ personal experience of sexual attraction provoked shame; gender and trust impact on which supervisor to choose; male and female differences in supervisory needs; and a clear contract facilitates disclosure of sexual attraction.

Open access
Parental attitudes and parentification of children in families with limited parental care competencies

Summary

Parentification describes the taking on of an adult role by a child or adolescent before they are emotionally and developmentally ready to face the tasks and challenges that come with it (Boszormenyi–Nagy & Spark, 1973). I It is viewed in the literature from the perspective of the functioning of the family system in the context of development, and as a pathology of parental functioning (Schier, 2014). The consequences of parentification on the functioning of a child can be particularly seen in the emotional sphere and in the area of mental disorders (Hooper et al., 2011). The research presented in the article involves 272 families facing the limitation or termination of parental rights. Analyses focused on the sociodemographic features of the family, such as the parents’ addictions and psychological problems and their psychological functioning in terms of parental attitudes which resulted in the parentification of the children. The results show that there is a connection between pathological functioning of parents, characteristics of their parental attitudes and the parentification of the first child.

Open access
What mental health promotion do university students need?

Abstract

Our aim was to find out what university students expect of mental health promotion. 610 young people were asked a few open questions. 81% of respondents expressed an interest in mental health promotion activities. They associated promotional activities with physical, social and/or emotional health care. Basically, these positive expectations are in agreement with the biopsychosocial model of mental health formulated by the WHO (2005). No interest in the idea of promotion (11%) is caused by the erroneous assumption that mental health promotion is targeted at people with mental disorders; therefore, a mentally healthy person does not benefit from participating in such a programme.

Open access
Young adults in corporations – psychological labour costs and their correlates based on some empirical research studies

Abstract

This article raises the issue of psychological labor costs comprehended – in line with the conceptualization by Maslach and Leiter – as symptoms of occupational burnout: emotional exhaustion, cynicism, low self-efficacy as experienced by young adults employed in one of the Lower Silesian biotechnological corporations. The author presents some correlative research studies and their results based on research conducted on a group of 80 specialist employees including 10 managers, covering their experience of burnout symptoms and also its correlates, such as global and organisational self-esteem. The research studies presented here are part of a larger research project which also includes some diagnosis on corporate culture and its organisational climate. Above all their results show an alarming levels of cynicism and emotional exhaustion experienced by these employees, together with their high global self-esteem and medium organisational self-esteem.

Open access
Correlation between the perceived residential environment quality and the inhabitants’ quality of life and civic behavior

Abstract

Although it has been assumed for many years that there is a relationship between the subjectively perceived quality of residential environment and quality of life, empirical evidence for the existence of such a link has been inconclusive. It is also assumed that the perception of residential environment in a certain way covariates with the behavior of people in this environment; Empirical support for this correlation is now all the more problematic. The objectives in the our research project were as follows: (1) enriching the current knowledge about those links between the perceived quality of various residential areas and their inhabitants’ experienced quality of life, and (2) examining the co-variables between the sense of satisfaction with the residence and declared pro-social and civic behavior. For the purpose of our study, we proposed an original theoretical framework integrating several available man-environment-behavior relationship concepts with the more general homeodynamic regulation concept for achieving psychological balance. Sixty-two people aged 18 to 85 took part in the research. Two groups were identified in the analysis: young adults and seniors. No significant correlation was found between the respondents’ perceived quality of life and their satisfaction with the quality of the environment they inhabited. It was almost exclusively seniors who undertook activities to benefit the residential area, and their life quality was correlated with this activity. Young adults turned out to be generally inactive. Correlations between pro-social and civic behavior and the residential area’s assessed quality proved to be weak and simple, but had different directions and dimensions in young adults and seniors.

Open access
The driving force of action and the psychology of doing nothing

Abstract

My article discusses the psychological factors determining the driving force of human activity as well as the driving force of doing nothing. The discussion is related to the personal resources characteristics (personality, the type of mind, operational style), personal coping strategies with the pressures of time (procrastination, indecisiveness), an autonomous vs. non-autonomous reality creating style (passion, passivity), and anticipatory identity capital modelling by capitalizing on one’s own advantages and proactivity. The driving force of human activity and doing nothing presented in the article is discussed from a psychological perspective as a multidimensional phenomenon. Firstly, it is discussed as a preconditioned personality trait, secondly as a contextually determined search for exiting from a difficult situation by delaying a decision, thirdly as an agentural creation of energy program of action (passion, apathy), and at the end as an agentural production of the self-advantages through proactivity. My article also reviews basic types of discontinuity and personality types related to them. These five discontinuity types are: 1 – place discontinuity, 2 – situation discontinuity, 3 – meanings and values discontinuity, 4 – context discontinuity, 5 – projective discontinuity.

Open access
Multiwork, work-family/family-work conflict and satisfaction with life

Abstract

The aim of my study was to determine what relations exist between work and family demands, W-F/F-W conflict and job satisfaction, satisfaction with marriage, and life satisfaction among multiworkers and monoworkers. Research involved 218 multiworkers and 218 employees with single employment, who filled out a survey, the Organizational Climate Questionnaire, the W-F/F-W Conflict Technique, the Job Description Questionnaire, the Marital Communication Questionnaire, and Satisfaction with Life Scale. From the data obtained referring to multiworkers, it is shown that W-F conflict is directly affected by the number of working hours, commuting time, job demands, rewards, and leave control. F-W conflict is directly affected by number of children aged up to six years, partner engagement, and the number of children aged 12‒15 years. Satisfaction with life results from satisfaction with marriage and job satisfaction (stronger relationship). Considering the monoworkers, W-F conflict is directly affected by the number of working hours, commuting time, and the rewards at work. F-W conflict is directly affected by engagement of the partner and the depreciation in the relationship. Satisfaction with life results from satisfaction with marriage (stronger relation) and job satisfaction. These results contribute to deeper knowledge on the multiwork phenomenon.

Open access
Professional competences: Personality and Axiological Model (MOA) in verifying the sense of life quality

Abstract

It was assumed that the sense of the quality of life would reveal a significant relationship with personality-related and axiological dimensions among specialists (the Personality and Axiological Model MOA). It was hypothesized that there would be a positive correlation between independent personality-related variables for the sense of life quality (structure of personality: competence, relations, autonomy, adaptation and professional achievements). The determination coefficient was 0.47, that is, its variance was 47% of the variable sense of life quality being explained in the structural model MOA; by women 48%, by men 39%. In the discussion on the obtained results, emphasis should be put on the significance ascribed by specialists to the following dimensions: adaptation, competence and relations for the quality of life.

Open access