Aleksandar Ignjatović, Živorad Marković, Slađana Stanković and Boban Janković
Anti-doping programs need to preserve and promote what is essential in sport and that is sport spirit and achieving perfection through the development of its own natural talents, in order to raise awareness about the importance of fair play and creating an environment that supports the sport without doping. These programs should be directed to the athletes and young people by creating a positive and long-term impact on the choices they make. Thanks to games that are used for children in preschool and primary school age it is possible to efficiently and timely impact on the development character and virtues because it is incomparably more difficult to form character and moral values in already formed athletes than in childrens who are just getting to know the world of sport and everything what he is carries. Childrens need to be instilled the importance of physical exercise and the importance of participation in sport without prohibited resources and methods that roughly violate the ideal of fair play and on that way promote at childrens health, fairness and equality for all athletes. Fair play was created out of chivalry and gentlemanly in the middle ages where many reformers proposed sport and games with the aim of education and strengthening moral values in children. Teaching children the ideals of fair play in which the sport is based, and their continued involvement in sports activities with special accent on the pedagogical aspect leads to raising the awareness of moral values and ideals of sports chivalry. Developing awareness among children about fair play and anti-doping implies greater satisfaction with the results achieved in sports activities, which is a win at all costs and with the use of illegal resourses worthless, and victors would not be able to refer to with pride.
The focus of this article is how physical activity one of the leading health and wellbeing factors in the European Region. The synthesis of recommendations for physical activity presented in the literature of the world will allow specialists in physical education to focus in choosing the duration of organized physical activity for children with the purpose of positive impact on their health.
Although the fight against the use of doping in sport has been going on for almost 90 years, its effects have become tangible in the last 45 years only, thanks to the use of valid and sensitive analytical methods. Historically, extensive international scientific cooperation and technological progress have laid down the basis for the development of high quality doping control laboratories worldwide. New biotechnology products are constantly being discovered and are made available on the doping market, so that anti-doping approaches must be raised to a higher level, and analytical methods must be constantly improved and refined, since it has bacome obvious that to some extent they lag behind new sophisticated doping agents. However, all the methods must first be scientifically proven and tested in order to be adequately used against doping in sport. If the technology and systematic use of the latest scientific anti-doping knowledge continue to develop and advance, it will greatly contribute to the development of analytical methods.
This study tested an instrument entitled “Physical Culture and Ethics” which consisted of 44 statements to which subjects responded on a Likert-type five-point scale. The statements reflected the ethical theories of Aristotle (14 statements), Kant (14 statements) and Mill (16 statements).
The hypothetical model of ethical theories was verified on a sample of 163 students at the Faculty of Sport and Physical Education in Belgrade (119 male students and 44 female students), attending all years of study (n1=22, n2=34, n3=36, n4=48, n5=23). We hypothesized that students would display greater maturity in terms of education and reaffirm their positions towards ethical issues in physical culture as they progressed in their studies, and also that the male and the female students had their specific moral outlooks on the reality of physical culture.
When comparing the basic statistical indicators of students’ responses to statements reflecting the ethical theories (Aristotle, Kant, Mill) against the year of study students were in (mean value and standard deviation) – certain variation in values from the first to the fifth year of study was observed, thus confirming the hypothesis.
When comparing the basic statistical indicators of male and female students’ responses to statements reflecting the ethical theories (Aristotle, Kant, Mill) – female students’ results were better on all scales, and Aristotle’s ethical theory showed a statistical significance, thus confirming the second hypothesis as well.
Since the first years of high school instruction in the Principality of Serbia, various Ministers of Education, principals and first gymnastics teachers had been thinking about physical education instruction. Better political, economic and cultural situation in Serbia together with the influences and ideas arriving from culturally developed European countries gave rise to several initiatives related to physical education instruction which were introduced into high school curricula.
Persons with different qualification levels were engaged as physical education teachers (gymnastics teachers) and they remained at that position for a few years. The aim of the paper was to establish who the PE teachers were in High School of Užice since its establishment until the beginning of the First World War (1839-1914). Historical method was used in this paper.
From 1839 until 1878 there were no organized physical education classes (physical exercise and gymnastics) because the first teachers in this school were not interested, or experienced about this type of instruction. By the written approval, the Minister of Education appointed in September 1878 the first gymnastics teacher Steva Trifunović, teacher of painting and calligraphy. In the next period the classes used to be realized by teachers of Serbian language, geometry and algebra, geography or officers and sometimes even all other homeroom teachers.
Regardless the fact that those were all people who had acquired basic knowledge on physical exercising in military schools or in gymnastic societies, it was still not enough for professional work in PE education and its further promotion.
The solution to the problem was initiated only in 1910. when Josef Jehlička came, at the invitation of the Ministry of Education of the Kingdom of Serbia, together with a group of Czeck Sokol leaders who had been sent to work in High School of Užice and improved quality of physical education classes in that school thanks to his professional competence. That led to the conditions for the PE classes in High School of Užice to become more significant in the system of general education of students.
In terms of national, political, economic angle or of racial, religious, class, gender equality, sport and sports events are often used to express views, opinions or power of certain groups or individuals. In accordance with the popularity and the prevalence of a certain sport, the nature of the event itself, as well as depending on the means of transmission, messages that are sent are of greater or lesser echoes. The research presented in this paper refers to sport, sporting events and social circumstances and relations that govern the modern world. The aim of the research is to examine the sport and sporting events through the prism of social circumstances and relations in modern age. It also presents many sporting events and various external factors that not only followed but often had a decisive influence on them. The paper applied the historical method and the method of theoretical analysis.
Miroljub Ivanović, Srdjan Milosavljević and Ugljesa Ivanović
The basic goal of this research was to evaluate sociocultural influence of parents on general body dissatisfaction among their adolescent children. The sample comprised (N = 228) of both male and female adolescents aged between 16-19 years. In this study, two measuring instruments were applied: Body image and body change inventory and the Perceived Sociocultural Influences on Body Image and Body Change Questionnaire. These instruments show internal consistency of high reliability, which makes them applicable to the Serbian population. According to results of the correlational analysis, there is a mild correlation between predictor variables (influence of mother and influence of father) and the criteria general body dissatisfaction. The applied hierarchical regression analysis showed that predictor variables explain 22% of the total variance of general body dissatisfaction. It was also established that variables (female gender, sociocultural influence of parents on body image and change in physical appearance) present significant predictors of overall body dissatisfaction in late adolescence. The majority of the obtained findings is in accordance with results from previous studies, and should provide directions for predicting body image and perceptive sociocultural contributions on body image, as well as designing programs of prevention regarding body dissatisfaction in adolescents of both genders.
Slađana Mijatović, Violeta Šiljak and Vladan Vukašinović
The idea of revival of the Olympic Games appeared much before its realization, but creation of the possibilities to reintroduce the Games was closely related to development of modern sport. The first mentioning and proposals originated from the works of the Humanists in 15th and 16th century and in the thirties of the 19th century some practical attempts were made for their revival.
The aim of the paper was to determine the time when the first ideas on Olympism appeared in Serbia in civil gymnastic and other sporting societies and clubs. Historical method was used in the paper
For a long period Serbia was cherishing and developing traditional forms of competitions and tournaments but organized forms of physical exercises of citizens appeared only in the mid-19th century when the first private schools for physical exercises were established in many towns of the Principality of Serbia. Therefore, these private schools and the civil gymnastic societies were places where modern sport and the Olympic ideal were gladly accepted and further developed. Thus, it is understandable why, at the time of realization of the idea on revival of Ancient Olympic Games, those societies and clubs used the expression: Olympic competitions for their sporting events, besides they already used names: popular festivals or chivalry competitive plays.
In the mid-19th century the Olympic idea took roots also in the Principality and later in the Kingdom of Serbia. Namely, before the revival of the Olympic Games in Athens and before the term „Olympic“ became more significant in reporting from sporting events, the competitions in Serbia had been announced as „Olympic festivities“ although they were not directly linked to the aforementioned Games in Greece.
Vladimir Miletic, Zeljko Rajkovic and Hadzi Milos V. Vidakovic
In frame of subject Outdoor activities, as mandatory practical teaching, students of sport and physical education from Belgrade have ten days summer camp. From twelve different practical contents 43% represent base for implementation of alpinism activities. Alpinism activities and its base means: camping, hiking, navigation, mountaineering and alpinism. Socialization is process, in which members of society became capable for life in social community. The main goal of socialization is adoption of characteristically behavior with the ability to adapt to new environmental with personality preservation. Professors of PE through their subject need to adapt their expertise to opportunities of their pupils and direct then to the essence of sport and PE. Beside transfer of knowledge and skill, professors have a task to follow and evaluate development of pupil, to cooperate with colleagues and pupil parents, to organize workshops, excursions, competitions… Research was implemented during last day of camp, with five grade rating scale. Results shows high awareness of student population regarding alpinism activities in relationship with nature and frustrations that nature gives to us.
This is one more confirmation that shows importance of existing this educational contents. Its necessary to elaborate program activities with more details and diversity in order to have offer of better quality, and realization in higher percent of these activities.
This study has proposed to highlight the relevant aspects related to attitude, how to interpret and understanding sport performance and spiritual performance and values around them. The overall objective of the survey was to obtain data on people's perceptions of the spiritual and athletic performance and to formulate some conclusions. The specific objectives were: Identification of key elements of people's attitudes towards the researched topic. Identifying key issues about performance and image in the two areas. Study the quality of perceptions. Identification of indicators on educational features. In conclusion we have identified some key points about the image of athletic performance and spiritual performance. Most cognitive values and perceptions are dominated by visualization and verbalization attributes. We identified educational characteristics - perceptual experiences are formed, influenced and directed educational environments: family, community, school, church and media. Spiritual and sports performance have multiple implications, individual and social, which go beyond the strict environment in which the case and their perception may be a means of education and training. Trouble perception moral responsibility must be attributed primarily to educational environments and not as individuals.