Browse

31 - 40 of 180 items :

  • Nanotechnology x
Clear All
From vascular biology to vascular medicine

Abstract

Cardiovascular disorders include various conditions characterized by morphological and functional defects of the heart and vascular system. Molecular biology techniques (in particular DNA sequencing) have recently offered new insights into the etiology of cardiovascular defects, revealing their association with germline as well as somatic mutations.

Genetic tests are evaluated on the basis of their analytical and clinical validity, clinical utility, and ethical, legal and social implications. Next generation sequencing is so far the best approach for molecular diagnosis of congenital heart defects and vascular anomalies, the genetic and phenotypic heterogeneity of which makes them difficult to diagnose. Understanding the molecular causes of congenital heart defects and vascular anomalies has permitted clinical trials of drugs targeting affected genes and pathways.

The articles in this Special Issue aim to provide guidance for those concerned with diagnosis and research in the field of cardiovascular defects. The approach to genetic testing is discussed.

Open access
Genetic testing for aortic valve stenosis

Abstract

Aortic valve stenosis (AVS) is a congenital aortic defect in which the aortic lumen narrows due to thickening or calcification of the aortic valve without obstructing left ventricular outflow. Depending on the site of obstruction, AVS is classified as valvular, sub-valvular or supra-valvular. The prevalence of AVS is about 3% and increases with age. One in eight persons over the age of 75 years has moderate or severe AVS. AVS has autosomal dominant inheritance. It can be associated with mutations in the following genes: NOTCH1, SMAD6, SMAD4, and ELN. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of the analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials, when available.

Open access
Genetic testing for atrial septal defect

Abstract

Atrial septal defect (ASD) is a congenital heart defect characterized by an opening in the atrial septum. About 1/3 of patients with Noonan syndrome caused by mutation in the PTPN11 gene have ASD. The prevalence of ASD is estimated at 100 per 100,000 live births. ASD may have autosomal dominant or recessive inheritance. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for atrioventricular septal defect

Abstract

Atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) is a congenital heart defect characterized by a shared atrioventricular junction coexisting with deficient atrioventricular septation. The main morphological characteristic of AVSD is a common atrioventricular canal. The prevalence of AVSD is estimated at 0.31/1000 live births and is higher among subjects with PTPN11 mutations. ASD may have autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for bicuspid aortic valve

Abstract

Bicuspid aortic valve (BAV) is a congenital defect in which the aortic valve has two rather than three leaflets. In many patients valve function may be normal but valve decompensation may occur due to other associated congenital abnormalities and secondary valve and aortic complications. Decompensation manifests as stenosis or regurgitation and thoracic aortic aneurysm and dissection. Cystic medial necrosis plays an important role in the pathogenesis of BAV. Prevalence of BAV is estimated at 0.5-2.0%. In children, 70-85% of stenotic aortic valves are bicuspid, compared to at least 50% in adults. BAV has autosomal dominant inheritance. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for cerebral cavernous malformations

Abstract

Cavernous cerebral malformations (CCM) are vascular malformations of the brain and spinal cord. CCM affect up to 0.5% of the general population, predisposing to headaches, seizures, cerebral hemorrhage and focal neurological deficit. CCM may be familial or sporadic. Familial forms have autosomal dominant inheritance. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for coarctation of aorta

Abstract

Coarctation of the aorta (CoA) is an inherited narrowing of the proximal descending thoracic aorta. Histological features include localized medial thickening and infolding with superimposed neointimal tissue. CoA is diagnosed by detection of a murmur or hypertension during routine examination. Typical clinical features are delayed or absent femoral pulses and difference in blood pressure between the arm and legs. These symptoms may appear in the first weeks of life or after the neonatal period. CoA accounts for 4-6% of all congenital heart defects and has a reported prevalence of about 4 per 10,000 live births. It is more common in males than females (59% vs 41%). This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for cystic hygroma

Abstract

Cystic hygroma (CH) is characterized by abnormal accumulation of fluid in the region of the fetal neck and is a major anomaly associated with aneuploidy. Morphologically characterized by failure of the lymphatic system to communicate with the venous system in the neck, the clinical manifestations of CH depend on its size and location. Incidence is estimated at one case per 6000-16,000 live births. CH has autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive inheritance. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for Ebstein anomaly

Abstract

Ebstein anomaly (EA) is a rare congenital tricuspid valve malformation, characterized by downward displacement of the septal leaflet and an atrialized right ventricle. About 80% of cases of EA are non-syndromic; in the other 20%, the anomaly is associated with a chromosomal or Mendelian syndrome. The prevalence of EA is estimated at about 1 per 20,000 live births, and accounts for less than 1% of all congenital heart defects. EA has autosomal dominant inheritance. Likely causative genes are: NKX2-5, MYH7 and TPM1. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, potential risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access
Genetic testing for Emberger syndrome

Abstract

Emberger Syndrome (ES) is a very rare genetic disorder associated with primary lymphedema, myelodysplasia and immunodeficiency. The syndrome has autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Sporadic cases caused by de novo germinal mutations in the GATA2 gene have also been described. We developed the test protocol on the basis of the latest research findings and diagnostic protocols on lymphatic malformation in ES. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access