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Open access

Joanna Basiaga-Pasternak

Abstract

The aim of the study was to present the relationships between the way of perceiving oneself and the world by young athletes, the cognitive anxiety and the ways of coping with stress. The target group consisted of 222 participants (114 boys and 108 girls) aged 16–20, students of sports-profiled secondary schools. The participants specialised in both winter and summer sports, as well as in individual and team sport disciplines. The following tools were implemented: Attitudes to Intrapersonal, Interpersonal and to the World Questionnaire, Coping Inventory for Stressful Situations (CISS) and Sport Anxiety Scale. The study showed that negative perception of oneself and others increases the level of cognitive anxiety and decreases the tendencies to search for social contacts in the face of stress. With regard to the positive image of oneself and others, the opposite was observed. The above relationships refer mainly to girls who practise sports.

Open access

Rūtenis Paulauskas, Nerijus Masiulis, Alejandro Vaquera, Bruno Figueira and Jaime Sampaio

Abstract

This study aimed to identify the game-related statistics that discriminated between Euroleague basketball players and European basketball players playing in the NBA, when competing in the same event (EuroBasket 2015). There was a total of 78 matches played by 24 teams in two groups of analysis: NBA, participants in the European Championship who played in the NBA season of 2014-2015 (n = 26); Euroleague, participants in the European Championship who played in the Euroleague season of 2014-2015 (n = 82). The players’ performance variables were normalized to the time they spent on the court. To identify which variables best discriminated between the NBA and the Euroleague performance profiles, a descriptive discriminant analysis was conducted. Structure coefficients (SC) from the matrix greater than |0.30| were interpreted as meaningful contributors to discriminating between the groups. The results revealed a significant function (p = 0.008, canonical correlation of 0.51, Λ = 0.74, reclassification = 84.2%) and substantial performance differences in game-related statistics much related to the influence of body size (body height and mass), such as two-point field goals made (SC = 0.42) and missed (SC = 0.40), free-throws made (SC = 0.55), defensive rebounds (SC = 0.62), blocks (SC = 0.48) and suffered fouls (SC = 0.34). No differences were found at the level of game-related statistics indirectly related to perception, such as assists, turnovers or steals. Also, the greater body size in NBA players was likely related to higher variability in performance, thus, being an important topic for coaches and recruiters to analyse.

Open access

Jonathan Sinclair, Bobbie Butters and Philip Stainton

Abstract

The current investigation examined the effects of running barefoot and in minimalist footwear on medial tibiofemoral compartment loading, compared to conventional running trainers. Fifteen male runners ran over a force platform in five different footwear conditions (barefoot, Vibram five-fingers (Footwear A), Inov-8 (Footwear B) Nike-Free (Footwear C), and running trainer) whilst lower extremity kinematics were examined using a three-dimensional camera system. Medial compartment loading during the stance phase was explored using the knee adduction moment (KAM). In addition, the KAM instantaneous load rate was also calculated. Differences between footwear across the entire stance phase were examined using 1-dimensional statistical parametric mapping, whereas differences in discrete parameters were explored using one-way repeated measures ANOVA. Statistical parametric mapping revealed that Footwear B was associated with a significantly larger KAM compared to the running trainer from 15-20 and 25-30% of the stance phase and also Footwear C from 15-20% of the stance phase. The KAM instantaneous load rate was significantly larger in the barefoot (210.69 Nm/kg/s), Footwear A (200.23 Nm/kg/s) and Footwear B (186.03 Nm/kg/s) conditions in comparison to Footwear C (100.88 Nm/kg/s) and running trainers (92.70 Nm/kg/s). The findings from this study indicate that running barefoot and in minimalist footwear with the least midsole interface may place runners at increased risk of medial compartment knee OA, although further exploration using habitual barefoot / minimalist footwear users is required.

Open access

Elena Bendíková, Michal Marko, Anetta Müller and Éva Bácsné Bába

Summary

The aim of the research was to determine the effect of the health-oriented exercises included in the final part of the physical and sport education on the selected factors of the musculoskeletal system of the female students of the selected secondary school, as well as to point out the diversification and the realization of the innovative contents of the teaching lessons with the health aspect, especially from the point of view of the primary prevention of the female students’ health of secondary school, improving the level of the posture and the overall muscular system. The monitored group consisted of 33 female students of the selected secondary school in Trenčín (Slovakia). The experimental group (EG) A consisted of 17 female students (age = 16.9 ± 1.3 years, height = 168.6 ± 3.9 cm, weight = 57.3 ± 3.4 kg) and the control group (CG) B consisted of 16 female students (age = 16.3 ± 1.1 years, height = 167.3 ± 4.7 cm, weight = 58.9 ± 4.8 kg). From the point of view of the data acquisition methods, in initial, ongoing and final evaluations were applied standardized methods for assessing the posture and the muscular system for physical and medical practice. Subsequently, the applied health-oriented exercises were used in the final part of the physical and sport education for 3 months, 3 times per week, for the duration of 12 minutes. The results significantly showed the improvement of the monitored musculoskeletal system (p < 0.01), as well as the overall muscular system (p < 0.01). Based on the findings, we point out the suitability of including the health-oriented exercises in the teaching process of the physical and sport education with the focus on the musculoskeletal system. This study was supported by VEGA 1/0242/17 Physical activity as prevention of functional disorders related to the musculoskeletal system of secondary school students.

Open access

M. Armenteros, Anto J. Benítez, R. Flores, M. Sillero-Quintana, M. Sánchez Cid and J.A. Simón

Abstract

The main objective of this article was to analyse whether the Interactive Video Test (IVT) is a useful tool for the practical off-field training of soccer assistant referees, and if its use could reduce erroneous on-field decisions when applying Law 11 of the Laws of the Game. Assistant referees were taken from the Spanish 2nd “B” and 3rd Divisions, and were divided into two groups, the Experimental Group (EG) and the Control Group (CG). The referees in the EG were trained with the Interactive Video Test by analysing 720 off-side decisions. Subsequently, both groups were assessed in on-field tests involving the simulation of 326 possible off-side situations. When the results of both groups were compared, there was a continuous improvement over time in the EG associated to the use of the IVT, significantly better than the improvement of the CG. Moreover, the IVT proved to be a good diagnostic tool to assess the skills of assistant referees in perceiving and evaluating off-side situations.

Open access

Nikoletta Nagy, Gyöngyi Földesi, Csaba Sós and Csaba Ökrös

Abstract

Based on our empirical research, through the analysis of the birthdates of young competitive swimmers, the present paper aims to examine the system of talent selection and management in Hungarian competitive swimming complemented with a new element. The research population consisted of the registered junior competitive swimmers participating in the new talent management program of the Hungarian Swimming Association (N=235; average age: 11.44) due to the decision of the Coaches’ Committee. Our research was based on the analysis of documents and databases. Besides the descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and the Kruskal-Wallis test were applied. The results show that swimmers born in the first three months of the year are still more likely to be recruited in the program than their relatively younger counterparts. Furthermore, as a potential effect of the new program, the dominance of the first quarter of the year is also characteristic among those eligible for the next level of talent management. The new selection system of Hungarian swimmers is still highly sensitive to the relative age. Thus, it is recommended to further investigate the functioning of the new talent management program in terms of selection and success.

Open access

Aneta Anna Omelan, Barbara Breś, Marek Raczkowski, Robert Podstawski, Tibor Polgár and Miklós Koltai

Abstract

Introduction. Summer camps are the most important form of organised leisure activity for children and adolescents, and their popularity has been increasing year after year. Providing tourism services for this group of recipients constitutes a big challenge for the organisers because they have to satisfy the expectations of not only the participants but also their parents. Hence, the aim of the study was to obtain data making it possible to estimate the degree of convergence between the needs of summer camp participants, their parents’ needs, and the tourism product, that is summer camp.

Materials and methods. The study involved one hundred participants of a summer camp, aged 11-17 years. A diagnostic survey carried using direct interviews and questionnaires. The data have been processed and analysed statistically by means of Excel and Statistica v.12; a significance test was used for comparing two proportions at the significance level α = 0.05 (with p < α indicating the presence of statistically significant differences and p ≥ α indicating a lack of statistically significant differences).

Results. The children of educated mothers participated in summer camps significantly more often than children of mothers with vocational education (p = 0.0115) and secondary education (p = 0.0422). When selecting the summer camp, most respondents (44.57%) paid attention to the degree of correspondence between the programme and their interests. The camps that were the most popular were sport summer camps (41.30%). Boys chose survival summer camps more often than girls (p = 0.0360) whereas girls preferred active and sailing summer camps (p = 0.006). The most attention in a summer camp was paid to the staff.

Conclusions. When choosing a summer camp, children and parents pay special attention to whether or not the programme is rich in attractions; however, it is the staff that conditions positive emotions of the participants as well as their good memories. Organisers know how important the staff are and that they are the warrant of the summer camp’s success. The results presented confirm that preparing a summer camp offering requires much work and involvement because one must satisfy the expectations of both participants and parents, who use different criteria of camp evaluation.

Open access

George Karlis, Aida Stratas, Marianna Locke, François Gravelle and Genie Arora

Abstract

Health care and leisure services, although different, are similar from the perspective that both focus on enhancing quality of life by improving health and wellbeing. Although both of these services are vitally important, some groups such as aged immigrants face a number of barriers that may limit their access to these services. This paper examines and discusses two related areas of the service sector – health care and leisure – and the growing concern to address the needs of Canada’s aging population, specifically, aged immigrants. The paper concludes with the following five suggestions for health care and leisure service providers to alleviate barriers faced by Canada’s ethnic aged: 1) Recognize that health care and leisure are closely related, 2) Understand the changing nature of society including trends in immigration, 3) Get to know society’s diversity of aged immigrants, 4) Evaluate current services provided, and 5) Establish future goals and directions.

Open access

T. L. Urban

Abstract

This study analyzed the effect of a disproportionate amount of time between rounds of a playoff series—known as the “rest vs. rust” debate in the popular sports media—on the likelihood of winning each game of the subsequent round of the tournament. We utilized NBA Finals data from 1984 – 2018, and analyzed this phenomenon using ordered logistic regression with a categorical dependent variable representing the margin of victory of each game. In addition to several control variables, variables reflecting the difference in the time between series for the two teams were used to measure this effect. The results indicate that having additional time between rounds of the series provides a statistically significant advantage; interestingly, though, it has more of an impact on the second game of the subsequent round than it does for the first game. Teams may utilize the results of this study when deciding on how to schedule and intensify their practice sessions, by providing appropriate rest and maintaining rhythm to increase the likelihood of winning each game.

Open access

E. Simmonds and P. O’Donoghue

Abstract

Tennis matches are hierarchies made up of sets containing games which, in turn, contain points. Traditional tennis games and tiebreakers could theoretically be infinite in length because a player needs to be at least 2 points ahead of the opponent to win. Fast4 tennis is a newer format of tennis that has been used at a number of levels of the sport including professional tennis where it has been used in Next Generation Finals events since 2017. The purpose of the current investigation is to compare the traditional tennis format to Fast4 tennis in terms of the probability of different players winning matches and the duration of matches. Probabilistic models of Fast4 tennis games and tiebreakers were developed. These models allowed the probability of winning games and tiebreakers to be compared between the two formats of tennis for a range of probabilities of players winning points. The models were then used within a series of simulations to determine the probability of winning sets and matches as well as the durations of games, tiebreakers, sets and matches in the two formats. Each component of the two formats of tennis was simulated 100,000 times revealing a reduced impact of serve, greater chance of upsets and shorter matches in Fast 4 tennis than in traditional tennis. The probability of players of differing abilities winning matches as well as the duration of tennis matches should be considered by those making decisions on the format of matches to be applied in tennis tournaments as well as by those preparing to compete in such tournaments.