André Berchtold, Joan-Carles Surís, Thomas Meyer and Zhivko Taushanov
In this study we explored the development of somatic complaints among adolescents and young adults aged 16 to 30 years in Switzerland. Using data from the Transitions from Education to Employment (TREE) study, we applied a hidden Markovian model with covariates to cluster trajectories representing the sum of eight somatic complaints. The resulting groups differed mainly in terms of gender, reading literacy, and substance use. The trajectories of somatic complaints were also related to the number of critical events experienced by the respondents.
Isabel Baumann, Szilvia Altwicker-Hámori, Sibylle Juvalta, Niklas Baer, Ulrich Frick and Peter Rüesch
We examine how type of diagnosis, educational trajectories and educational qualifications affect the employment prospects of young adults with mental disorders. We draw on a novel dataset based on data from the Swiss Federal Social Insurance Office. Our analysis shows that individuals with mental disorders that typically have an onset in early childhood, those who experience educational trajectories including special needs education, and those attaining higher levels of qualification are more likely to be employed in early adulthood.
Gender inequalities in health may result from differences in health care utilisation. This paper reports, using an interactionist approach, health-related beliefs of men and women treated for cancer in childhood and living with increased health risks ever since. We observed that normative masculine traits are sometimes used to legitimise a reluctance to undergo medical surveillance. Overall, men tended to express a passive attitude towards ill-health, resulting in a gendered health vulnerability.
Valérie-Anne Ryser, France Weaver and Judite Gonçalves
Based on the theory of Cumulative (Dis)Advantage over the life course, this study makes three contributions. Using the concentration index, it documents the extent to which life satisfaction (LS) is unequally distributed with respect to health status (HS) in the 50+ population of SHARE. It shows that HS, widowhood and adaptation processes are important factors that correlate significantly with these inequalities in all countries studied. Finally, this study reveals that the 50+ population across Europe experiences cumulative disadvantage, both in terms of HS and LS.
This study investigates how women’s and men’s fertility history affect their health in later life and if this relationship varies across countries and cohorts. We use life history data and current health status of persons aged 50 and over from the Survey of Health, Ageing and Retirement in Europe (SHARE) for 13 countries. Country-fixed effects regressions show that parenthood itself and the number of children have little impact on later life health, but fertility timing is important. Moreover, significant country and cohort differences show that the health implications of timing depend upon the socio-historic context.
This article studies the impact of the social position on the health trajectories of children who follow a therapy for overweight or obesity management. Based on a qualitative study conducted within a Swiss hospital with 29 families, the author explains how the social position influences children’s relationship to health norms. The study results show that children belonging to wealthy families internalize more easily the therapeutic prescriptions in their everyday lives than the children from underprivileged families.
Historically, Australianness has been defined in contradistinction to its location – a British bastion in the Asia-Pacific region.A fear of being swamped by the Chinese – the ‘yellow peril’ – prompted federation, and a restrictive migration policy aimed at making Australia white. Thus, sinophobia has been significant in the national imaginary. This paper discusses how contemporary representations of Chineseness may be echoing this historic narrative of fear about being overrun. This is explored in the context of China’s shifting global significance and Australia’s growing economic relationship with China.
In recent years, an international debate has erupted over whether and how interculturalism differs from multiculturalism as a response to cultural diversity. An influential argument in this debate is that multiculturalism itself militates against intercultural dialogue. This article scrutinises this argument and challenge its applicability in the Australian context. I examine two case studies of fraught intercultural dialogue: the 2006 clash between the Howard government and the Ethnic Communities’ Council of Victoria over the proposed introduction of a citizenship test; and the Abbott government’s proposed reform of the anti-vilification provisions of the Racial Discrimination Act 1975 (Cth) during 2013–14. The cases suggest that far from undermining intercultural dialogue, respecting the terms of Australian multiculturalism would help to make it possible. Moreover, the cases suggest that if pursued genuinely, intercultural dialogue could contribute improved policy outcomes.
The use of intercultural dialogue (ICD) to promote intergroup understanding and respect is considered as a key to reduce tensions and the likelihood of conflict. This paper argues that understanding the differences among religions – those between packaged and lived religion – enhances the chances of success and makes the effort more challenging. Religions contained and packaged are found in formally organised expressions of religion – churches, denominations, synagogues, mosques, temples and so on. For packaged religions, religious identity is singular and adherents are expected to identify with only one religion and are assumed to accept the whole package of that religion. ICD in this context involves communicating with religious groups such as organisations and encouraging different leaders to speak with each other resulting in platforms filled with ‘heads of faith’ – bishops muftis, ayatollahs, chief rabbis, swamis and so on. In contrast, lived religions involve ritual practices engaged in by individuals and small groups, creation of shrines and sacred spaces, discussing the nature of life, sharing ethical concerns, going on pilgrimages and taking actions to celebrate and sustain hope.There is some evidence that, although packaged religions are declining, lived religions continue at persistent levels. Violent extremism is more likely to be associated with lived rather than packaged forms of religion, making a more balanced intercultural competences approach to ICD critical to countering conflict.