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Open access

Paolo Enrico Maltese, Yeltay Rakhmanov, Alice Bruson, Lorenzo Lorusso and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Stroke is defined as a focal or at times global neurological impairment of sudden onset and presumed vascular origin. 85% of strokes are due to cerebral ischemia and the other 15% to primary intracerebral hemorrhage.

Ischemic stroke (IS) is characterized by complete or partial obstruction of a vessel in the brain, resulting in lack of blood supply and death of brain tissue. The most common causes of IS are atherosclerosis, cardioembolism and small-vessel disease (lacunar stroke). Genetic factors play important role. Incidence rates for IS in the 15- to 45-year age range are ≈10 per 100,000 person years.

Hemorrhagic stroke (HS) is the least treatable and the most fatal form of cerebrovascular disease. Genetic mechanisms play a role in its development. Occurrence depends on many risk factors, including hypertension, heavy alcohol intake and anticoagulant treatment. According to the World Health Organization, 15 million people suffer stroke worldwide each year. The overall incidence of spontaneous HS worldwide is 24.6 per 100,000 person years. Strokes are the third most common cause of death and the most common cause of disability in developed countries.

This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Carla Marinelli, Marco Castori, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Marfan syndrome (MFS) is an inherited connective tissue disorder caused by heterozygous mutations in the FBN1 gene. Clinical manifestations of MFS include aortic dilatation and dissection, as well as cardiac valvular, ocular, skeletal and neurological manifestations. Prevalence varies from 6 to 20 per 100,000 individuals. Revised Ghent Nosology (2010) is used to establish a clinically based suspected diagnosis to be confirmed by molecular testing. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. Molecular testing is useful for diagnosis confirmation, as well as differential diagnosis, appropriate genetic counselling and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Stefano Paolacci, Carla Marinelli, Marco Castori, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Marfan-like disorders are inherited conditions with features resembling Marfan syndrome but without a pathogenic variant in FBN1, and/or without a clinical diagnosis of Marfan syndrome according to the Revised Ghent criteria, and/or with a pathogenic variant in a different disease gene. Marfan-like disorders are clinically and genetically heterogeneous and have variable prognosis. They may have autosomal dominant or autosomal recessive patterns of inheritance. The prevalence of most Marfan-like disorders is unknown. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. Molecular testing is useful for diagnosis confirmation, as well as differential diagnosis, appropriate genetic counselling and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Stefano Paolacci, Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Alice Bruson and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Variants affecting the function of genes in the RAS–mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signal transduction pathway have been identified as responsible for a group of developmental syndromes known as RASopathies. Noonan (NS) and cardiofaciocutaneous syndromes (CFC) represent the most frequent and best characterized RASopathies. Many cases of RASopathies are associated with lymphatic malformations that finally may result in lymphedema. We developed the test protocol “Lymphedema in RASopathies” on the basis of the latest research findings and diagnostic protocols on lymphatic malformation in RASopathies. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Stefano Paolacci, Carla Marinelli and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

We studied the scientific literature and disease guidelines to summarize the clinical utility of genetic testing for lymphedema distichiasis (LD) syndrome. LD is inherited in an autosomal dominant manner, and has unknown prevalence. It is caused by variations in the FOXC2 gene. Clinical diagnosis involves clinical examination, targeted at identifying primary lymphedema (chronic swelling of the extremities) and distichiasis (double row of eyelashes). The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Stefano Paolacci, Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Alessandra Zulian, Sandro Michelini and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Lymphatic malformations (LMs) show phenotypic variability, as well as clinical and genetic heterogeneity. Inheritance is autosomal dominant, recessive or X-linked and major genes involved in predisposition for LMs are continuously being discovered. The literature also indicates that somatic mutations play an important role in the development of LMs. In fact, activating somatic mutations in PIK3CA have been reported in lymphatic endothelial cells obtained from patients with different kinds of LM. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Alessandra Zulian and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Large-caliber vessels are those with a diameter of 10 mm or more. Most aneurysms remain asymptomatic until they expand or rupture. Aortic aneurysms are of special interest for physicians and scientists because of their prevalence. Aortic aneurysms and dissections account for 1-2% of all deaths in western countries. Expansion and rupture of vascular aneurysms show a strong correlation with hyperlipidemia, hypertension, smoking, sex and age. Heritability estimates have been as high as 70%. This Utility Gene Test was developed on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Stefano Paolacci, Carla Marinelli, Raul Ettore Mattassi, Bruno Amato, Tommaso Beccari, Munis Dundar and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Hereditary hemorrhagic telangiectasia (HHT) is an autosomal dominant vascular dysplasia characterized by telangiectases and arteriovenous malformations. These lesions cause bleeding, particularly in the nose, gastrointestinal tract and brain. HHT has incomplete penetrance, variable expressivity and genetic heterogeneity. De novo mutations associated with the onset of sporadic HHT have been reported. This Utility Gene Test was prepared on the basis of an analysis of the literature and existing diagnostic protocols. It is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Alice Bruson, Tommaso Beccari and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Hennekam Syndrome (HS) is a combination of congenital lymphatic malformation, lymphangiectasia and other disorders. It is a very rare disorder with autosomal recessive inheritance. We developed the test protocol “Hennekam Syndrome” on the basis of the latest research findings and diagnostic protocols on lymphatic malformation in HS. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.

Open access

Yeltay Rakhmanov, Paolo Enrico Maltese, Stefano Paolacci, Alice Bruson and Matteo Bertelli

Abstract

Emberger Syndrome (ES) is a very rare genetic disorder associated with primary lymphedema, myelodysplasia and immunodeficiency. The syndrome has autosomal dominant inheritance with incomplete penetrance. Sporadic cases caused by de novo germinal mutations in the GATA2 gene have also been described. We developed the test protocol on the basis of the latest research findings and diagnostic protocols on lymphatic malformation in ES. The genetic test is useful for confirming diagnosis, as well as for differential diagnosis, couple risk assessment and access to clinical trials.