Imposed and restrained deformations cause stresses in continuous concrete bridges, and in analyses of the superstructure these stresses are usually reduced to some degree due to creep and cracking of concrete. This study examines cracking and redistribution of stresses in a bridge superstructure under the loads and load combinations used in the original bridge design. The subject of this study is a three-span post-tensioned continuous concrete cantilever beam bridge. The bridge was analysed with non-linear calculation utilising the general force method and moment-curvature relationships. The analysis yielded the bending stiffness of the post-tensioned bridge superstructure as a function of bridge length under different loads. It was discovered that the secondary moment from prestressing force increased as the bending stiffness of the central span decreased due to cracking under external loads, which is not normally considered in design. The bending moment effects of linear temperature difference and support settlement decreased as expected as the superstructure bending stiffness decreased. The analysis provided new information on the effects of secondary moment from the prestressing force and on the difference between the cracked state and the linear elastic analysis of the concrete bridge superstructure.
Calcined clays are gaining increasing interest as future supplementary cementitious materials for the production of blended cements. Besides the mineralogy, the right production conditions can affect the pozzolanic activity of calcined clays. In this paper, the pozzolanic reactivity of two calcined natural clays in dependence of burning temperature, residence time in the furnace, cooling conditions and particle size of the final product is investigated. The highest pozzolanic reactivity was found at calcination temperatures between 600 and 800°C. While different cooling conditions had no identified effect on reactivity, decreased particle size and residence time increased the reactivity.
This project focused on how the cracking process in concrete is influenced by both the micro and meso structures of concrete. The aim was to increase knowledge pertaining to the effect of critical parameters on the cracking process and how this is related to the material’s macroscopic properties. A methodology based on the combination of different experimental methods and measuring techniques at different scales was developed. Crack propagation during tensile loading of small-scale specimens in a tensile stage was monitored by means of Digital Image Correlation (DIC) and Acoustic Emission (AE). After testing, crack patterns were studied using fluorescence microscopy.
Tomasz Ireneusz Jedliński, Jacek Buśkiewicz and Paweł Fritzkowski
Apart from the strength requirements, modern lighting pole designs have to meet a number of safety requirements in the event of collisions. The paper compares the experimental tests performed at the collision test track according to EN 12767 with the results of the numerical analysis carried out in Ansys LS-DYNA. The objective of the work is to prepare a new structure of a thin-walled lighting pole of steel which minimizes absorption of the kinetic energy of the vehicle and, simultaneously, its production costs are comparable to those of a standard pole. The tests were carried out at an impact speed of 100 km/h.
This paper studies restraint moments developing in simple-span precast, prestressed beams made continuous. Methods of evaluating restraint moments produced by creep and differential shrinkage are presented. Shrinkage and creep properties of composite structures, beam and deck parts were tested and compared to values defined according to Eurocode models. Finally, the restraint moments were calculated with both material models for the two-span parking deck structure. The study confirmed the findings of previous studies: that the methods that are used overestimate the negative restraint moment produced by differential shrinkage.
Robert Koteras, Michał Wieczorowski, Piotr Znaniecki and Natalia Swojak
The purpose of the article is to show the practical side of reverse engineering.Many times during the process of optimizing parts, before we intervene in the tool that produces them, we want to makesure that the optimization will work in practice.For this purpose, currently, we often use 3D printers. Unfortunately, they introduce distortions of geometry to the printed prototyperesultingfrom the technology of its production.
Otto During, Silu Bhochhibhoya, Ramesh Kumar Maskey and Rajendra Joshi
Rice Husk Ash (RHA) is a well-known supplementary cementitious materials (SCMs) that can be used for concrete with reduced CO2 contributions. In 2016, only Nepal produced 5.2 million tonnes rice that gave about 1.14 million tonnes rice husk. The rice husk can also be used directly in a cement kiln as a fuel. This study analysis the potential CO2 reductions from three scenarios and emphasis strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and treats in the production systems for initiate a decision process with possibilities to get an industry project financed from the green climate found. The highest CO2 benefits were from rice husk used in a cement kiln were half of the yearly rice husk production in Nepal could reduce the climate impact with 808000 tonnes CO2.
The following study analyses the use of modern 3D printing technology in dentistry with its necessary manufacturing and machining processes. Fitting of the manufactured metal structures is examined depending on their use, in terms of conventional adhesion-based denture designs and screw-fixed dentures on implants. Influencing factors and effects of the required post-processing steps are examined. Aspects such as sand-blasting, heat treatment, equipment and tools required for cutting are analyzed. The aim of this study is to create a manufacturing process that enables the required precision fitting of the created frame structure types.
Gergő Richárd Fejes, Viktor Gonda and Károly Széll
Severe plastic deformation (SPD) is a well-established methodology for the processing of bulk ultrafine grained materials. Among various methods, equal channel angular pressing (ECAP) is the most popular way of creating ultrafine grained materials. The stored energy after ECAP in these substances highly influences the microstructural processes: recovery and recrystallization of the processed materials. We analyzed the recrystallization kinetics of room and elevated temperature ECAP processed copper samples using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). For the processing of the measurement data we developed a MATLAB processing routine.
In the current century, building protection is very important in the face of terrorist attacks. The old buildings in Europe are not sufficiently resilient to the loads produced by blasts. We still do not fully understand the effects of different explosives on buildings and human bodies. [1–3] Computing blast loads are different from that of traditional loads and the material selection rules for this type of impact load are diverse. Historical and old buildings cannot be protected simply by new walls and fences. New ways need to be found to improve a building’s resistance to the effects of a blast. It requires sufficiently thin yet strong retrofitted materials in order to reinforce a building’s walls [4–6].