The article presents the analysis of complex stress states in the concrete structure of grain silos, caused by non-centric emptying. The authors present a combination of loads from the pressure of bulk solid on the silo chamber according to Eurocode 1, Part 4 , which should be taken into account when emptying on large eccentricities in action assessment class 3 (AAC3) silos. For the example of a cylindrical wheat silo with a height of 25 m and a diameter of 10 m, the researchers carried out an analysis regarding the impact of the size of the eccentric discharge outlet on the distributions of forces and bending moments in a reinforced concrete wall.
Soumia Bellil, Khelifa Abbeche and Ouassila Bahloul
The study of collapsible soils that are generally encountered in arid and semi-arid regions remains a major issue for geotechnical engineers. This experimental study, carried out on soils reconstituted in the laboratory, aims firstly to present a method of reducing the collapse potential to an acceptable level by treating them with different levels of bentonite–cement mixture while maintaining the water content and degree of compactness, thus reducing eventual risks for the structures implanted on these soils. Furthermore, a microscopic study using scanning electron microscopy was carried out to explore the microstructure of the soil in order to have an idea of the phenomena before and after treatment. The results show that treatment with a bentonite–cement mixture improves the geotechnical and mechanical characteristics, modifies the chemical composition of the soil, reduces the collapse potential and the consistency limits. The microstructural study and the X-ray energy dispersive spectroscopy analysis clearly illustrate an association of elementary particles in the soil aggregates, whereby the arrangement of these aggregates leads to the formation of a dense and stable material.
Road embankments, especially their slopes’ surfaces, must fulfil all the requirements concerning the exploitation criteria after the completion of construction works. This is very important while constructing or modernizing the embankments, based on the substrate including low-strength soils as well as in simple ground conditions (most convenient). The last dozen or so years of intensive construction of transport infrastructure have shown how big is the problem of ensuring the required volumes of qualified soil material for the construction of road embankments or the modernization of railway embankments. The depleting deposits of natural and easily accessible soils for the construction of embankments result in the need to use anthropogenic soils, for example, in the form of aggregates from the recycling of construction waste and other locally available waste materials, usually in the form of slag and ashes from the combined heat and power plants. In such cases, there’s a need to treat transportation earth structures individually in the scope of designing and quality control, because there are no applicable standard provisions in this scope.
This work indicates some of these important contemporary problems of transport engineering, occurring in newly built and modernized road objects, such as the stability of road embankments based on a low-strength substrate, use of anthropogenic soils and materials originating from the recycling of concrete surfaces for the construction of road embankments.
Szczepan Grosel, Michał Pachnicz, Adrian Różański, Maciej Sobótka and Damian Stefaniuk
In the paper, the influence of different types of bedding and backfill soil surrounding underground sewage duct on its deformation was analysed. Impact of increased soil lateral pressure was examined by considering the construction of an embankment nearby the underground pipeline. Numerical computations of three different variants of bedding and backfill soil surrounding the pipe were carried out. Displacements and deformation of the pipe were calculated using the finite element method with adoption of elastic-perfectly plastic constitutive model of soil. Subsequent stages of the construction were taken into account. Shear strength reduction method was applied to evaluate the factor of safety of the entire system. Finally, the results and conclusions were depicted.
Nabil Manchar, Chaouki Benabbas, Riheb Hadji, Foued Bouaicha and Florina Grecu
The purpose of the present study was to compare the prediction performances of three statistical methods, namely, information value (IV), weight of evidence (WoE) and frequency ratio (FR), for landslide susceptibility mapping (LSM) at the east of Constantine region. A detailed landslide inventory of the study area with a total of 81 landslide locations was compiled from aerial photographs, satellite images and field surveys. This landslide inventory was randomly split into a testing dataset (70%) for training the models, and the remaining (30%) was used for validation purpose. Nine landslide-related factors such as slope gradient, slope aspect, elevation, distance to streams, lithology, distance to lineaments, precipitation, Normalized Difference Vegetation Index (NDVI) and stream density were used in the landslide susceptibility analyses. The inventory was adopted to analyse the spatial relationship between these landslide factors and landslide occurrences. Based on IV, WoE and FR approaches, three landslide susceptibility zonation maps were categorized, namely, “very high, high, moderate, low, and very low”. The results were compared and validated by computing area under Road the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC). From the statistics, it is noted that prediction scores of the FR, IV and WoE models are relatively similar with 73.32%, 73.95% and 79.07%, respectively. However, the map, obtained using the WoE technique, was experienced to be more suitable for the study area. Based on the results, the produced LSM can serve as a reference for planning and decision-making regarding the general use of the land.
In the method of steel tank erection, consisting in assembling the roof and the next courses (segments) of the shell at the ground level, starting from the top one (the so-called hydraulic jacking-up method), the assembled part of the tank is lifted using assembly supports (towers, trestles), hydraulic jacks and ropes. Supports are located inside or outside the tank, and their bases are usually not anchored. During the assembly work, numerous contaminations can appear under the bases of the supports; therefore, boundary conditions of the system consisting of the elevated tank and assembly supports may change, influencing the field of displacements and stresses in the elements of this system. This article presents the results of numerical tests of an exemplary mounted tank – mounting support system – at various possible coefficients of friction between the bases of the supports and the ground. The influence of the support conditions on the effort of the essential elements of the system was assessed. Calculation difficulty was noted to determine the directions of horizontal responses of the supports. It was assumed that these directions did not change after exceeding the values of the friction forces. The analysed tank collapsed during its erection.
Aref M. Al-Swaidani, Ibraheem Hamood and Ayman Meziab
The objective of this research was to investigate the effect of adding thermally treated clay on some engineering properties of the untreated expansive clayey soil. Three expansive clayey soil samples obtained from three different sites in the south of Syria have been investigated. They were thermally treated up to three different levels (450°C, 650°C and 850°C) for 3 hours. Three replacement levels of thermally treated clay were used, i.e. 0%, 10% and 20%. The X-ray diffractometer (XRD) technique has been used to detect the crystalline and glassy phase in the clayey samples before and after the thermal treatment. Pozzolanic activity of the thermally treated clayey soil has been studied using the modified Chapelle test and the mechanical strength test at each of the temperature levels. Atterberg limits, compaction, free swell, swelling pressure and linear shrinkage have particularly been investigated. Test results revealed the positive effect of thermally treated clay when added to the natural soil. Plasticity index (PI) was reduced by about 60% when 20% thermally treated clay was added to the natural soil. In addition, 6% lime was added to further investigate the combined effect of lime and calcined clay on the properties of the clayey expansive soil. All investigated properties were significantly improved when 20% thermally treated soil and 6% lime were added together. For instance, swelling pressure and linear shrinkage values were reduced to less than 15% or even much less when compared with those of the natural soil. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis were employed as well.
Tadeusz Majcherczyk, Zbigniew Niedbalski and Łukasz Bednarek
Back in the early 1980s, coal deposits occurring at depths of ~700 m below surface were already regarded as large-depth deposits. Meanwhile, today the borderline depth of large-depth mining has extended to >1,000 m. Design, excavation and maintenance of mining roadways at the depth of >1,000 m have, therefore, become crucial issues in a practical perspective in recent years. Hence, it is now extremely important to intensify research studies on the influence of large depths on the behaviour of rock mass and deformation of support in underground excavations. The paper presents the results of the study carried out in five mining excavations at depths ranging from 950 to 1,290 m, where monitoring stations with measurement equipment were built. The analysis of data from laboratory and coal mine tests, as well as in situ monitoring, helped to formulate a set of criteria for stability assessment of underground excavations situated at large depths. The proposed methodology of load and deformation prediction in support systems of the excavations unaffected by exploitation is based on the criteria referring to the depth of excavation and the quality of rock mass. The depth parameter is determined by checking whether the analysed excavation lies below the critical depth, whereas the rock mass quality is determined on the basis of the roof lithology index (WL) and the crack intensity factor (n)
The most important piece of road infrastructure is bridges. Wooden bridges have advanced constantly during the past decades. The trend began in Scandinavian countries but has also now gained significant ground in Russia. This research studies experimental endurance potential of the joints of the wooden beam while considering the coefficient of asymmetry of the cycle, which corresponds to the actual operating conditions. Performance analysis of the composite bars is carried out based on the experiment; the development of a special methodology for calculating the joints of wooden elements with the dowel plates for their better endurance is also introduced in this paper. The results of experimental studies on the performance of bending composite wooden bridge bars based on dowel plates operating under cyclic influences thus determine the endurance limit of wood for composite wooden bridge beams based on dowel plates. The calculation technique and interdependence of the endurance coefficient affecting the asymmetry coefficient of the bent composite wooden bridge bars on the dowel plates under cyclic loading are considered. The experimental data on the endurance of composite wooden bridge beams have been obtained, and separate analysis has been made of the compounds under cyclic loading performance; a method has been developed for calculating the bent composite wooden bridge bars reinforced by the dowel plates under cyclic influences.
A systematic approach to measure the differences between Mohr-Coulomb (MC) and Drucker-Prager (DP) shear strength criteria used commonly in soil and rock mechanics is presented. It is shown that the DP criterion generates a shear strength between 0.6 and 3 times the MC strength, for the same friction angle and cohesion parameters. The appropriate conditions for obtaining equal shear strengths are given. Moreover, some new DP failure surfaces are proposed which minimize the differences relative to the MC predictions. The equivalence of the DP and MC criteria under plane strain conditions is also examined.