CdS thin films with (1 1 1) orientation were prepared by chemical bath deposition technique at 80±5 °C using the reaction between NH4OH, CdCl2 and CS(NH2)2. The influence of annealing temperature varying from 150 °C to 250 °C was studied. X-ray diffraction studies revealed that the films are polycrystalline in nature with cubic structure. Various parameters, such as dislocation density, stress and strain, were also evaluated. SEM analysis indicated uniformly distributed nano-structured spherically shaped grains and net like morphology. Optical transmittance study showed the wide transmittance band and absence of absorption in the entire visible region. I-V characterization of p-Si/n-CdS diode and photoluminescence studies were also carried out for the CdS films.
L-cysteine hydrogen fluoride (LCHF) single crystals were grown from aqueous solution. Single crystal X-ray diffraction, FT-IR, UV-Vis-NIR, and TG-DTA were used to test the grown crystals. The specimen dielectric and mechanical behaviors were also studied. Powder X-ray diffraction of the grown crystal was recorded and indexed. The optical properties of the LCHF crystal were determined using UV-Vis spectroscopy. It was found that the optical band gap of LCHF was 4.8 eV. The crystal functional groups were identified using FT-IR. Second harmonic generation (SHG) efficiency of the LCHF was three times higher than that of KDP. The dielectric constant, dielectric loss and AC conductivity were measured at different frequencies and temperatures.
Elham Fakoori, Hassan Karami and Azizollah Nezhadali
Binary and ternary nanocomposites based on TiO2, SiO2 and ZnO were synthesized by PVA-based template-free gel combustion method. The morphology and the particles sizes of the synthesized samples depended on some parameters including the initial concentrations of metal salts and PVA amount in the sol, solvent composition and solution pH. Effects of these parameters were investigated and optimized by using the Taguchi method. In the experimental design, the Taguchi L25 array was used to investigate six factors at five levels. The samples were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) specific surface areas, scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The obtained results showed that the present method can be used to synthesize TiO2/SiO2/ZnO ternary nanocomposite with an effective surface area of 0.3 m2 · g−1 and ZnO/TiO2, TiO2/SiO2, ZnO/SiO2 binary nanocomposites with an effective surface area of 234 m2 · g−1, 6 m2 · g−1 and 0.5 m2 · g−1, respectively. The ZnO/TiO2 nanocomposite which was synthesized under the following experimental conditions: 2.5 wt.% Zn salt, 2.5 wt.% Ti salt, 2.0 wt.% PVA, pH = 1 and ethanol:water ratio 30:70 was selected by the Taguchi method as an optimum sample with the smallest particles (average diameter = 50 nm).
A. Anbarasi, S.M. Ravi Kumar, M. Packiya Raj, G.J. Shanmuga Sundar, M. Ganapathy, T. Kubendiran and S. Varalakshmi
A novel semiorganic nonlinear optical (NLO) crystal, bis(thiourea) barium nitrate (BTBN) was synthesized and grown by slow evaporation method. Structure of the new crystalline compound was confirmed by single crystal X-ray diffraction analysis and it showed that BTBN belongs to orthorhombic crystal system. The crystalline nature of the BTBN was confirmed by powder X-ray diffraction study. Important functional groups of BTBN were identified by FT-IR spectroscopic analysis. UV-Vis-NIR spectral study showed that the grown crystal is transparent in the entire visible region with low cut off wavelength of 304 nm. BTBN exhibits a SHG efficiency which is nearly 2.38 times higher than that of KDP. The BTBN crystal has high mechanical strength and belongs to soft category, which was confirmed by micorhardness study. The thermal stability of BTBN was determined from TGA and DTA thermal study which revealed that the BTBN crystal has thermal stability up to 243.1 °C. The surface properties and presence of elements was analyzed by SEM and EDAX study, respectively.
Stanisław Pikus, Małgorzata Zienkiewicz-Strzałka and Małgorzata Skibińska
The paper presents the new way of preparation of MCF foams with NaY zeolite. Significant changes in the amount of micro and mesopores in relation to the amount of NaY zeolite and 1,3,5-trimethylbenzene (TMB) added during the synthesis was observed. It suggests the possibility of controlling the micro/mesopores ratio by applying the proposed method. Environmental aspects of using new MCF/NaY foams is related to the adsorption of thorium ions (Th+4). The term of “MCF/NaY materials” refers to the general name of the material without referring to the content and state of zeolite. The obtained materials were highly effective in relation to Th+4. The adsorption capacity was greater when the number of micropores was lower. The dependence of adsorption capacity of Th+4 ions on aluminum atoms content was also confirmed.
Chunyu Deng, Chaoran Qin, Xinyi Li, Shaoqing Li, Zhixiong Huang, Lianmeng Zhang, Xuedong Zhou, Dongyun Guo and Yang Ju
PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals were synthesized by a hydrothermal method. The effect of NaOH concentration, reaction temperature and time on nucleation and growth of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals was investigated. As the 0.05 mol/L PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 precursors were heated at 200 °C for 21 h with NaOH concentration of 0.5 mol/L, the tetragonal PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals were formed, and the grain size was more than 20 nm. With increasing the NaOH concentration from 0.5 to 1.5 mol/L, the grain size of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals decreased. When the precursors were heated at different temperatures (140 °C to 200 °C) for 21 h with 1.0 mol/L NaOH, single-phase PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals were obtained at 160 °C to 200 °C. With increasing the reaction temperature from 160 °C to 200 °C, the grains size of PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals increased from 5 nm to 9 nm. When the precursors were heated at 160 °C in different reaction times from 6 h to 21 h, the evolution from amorphous to crystalline PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals in correlation with the reaction time was observed. Single crystalline PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 nanocrystals with narrow size distribution (from 5 nm to 9 nm) were synthesized by controlling the NaOH concentration, reaction temperature and time. The obtained results can find potential application in preparing PbZr0.52Ti0.48O3 thin films on flexible substrates.
Simulated transmission spectra for tapered fibers with no taper, one taper and two tapers in the near infrared wavelength range, calculated by Finite-Difference-Time-Domain method are currently presented. Transmission peak positions tend to shift to the shorter wavelength when the taper deformation is added to the fiber or the taper width gets narrower. The thickness sensitivity for the tapered structures with different taper thicknesses is about 2.28e-3 nm·µm−1. There is an interference structure in the electric field distribution images, which reveals in the fiber structures. The transmission spectra for the fiber without taper, one taper and two-tapered structures were simulated in near infrared wavelength by FDTD. The transmission spectra for tlated in near infrared wavelength by FDTD. The sensitivity of the fiber was about 50 nm × RIU−1 and it had better refractive index detection. The tapered fiber can be applied to the bio-chemical sensors and physical deformation testing.
As part of continuous quality improvement in well-managed enterprises, identifying unconformity should initiate actions to find their causes. Therefore, it was proposed to the enterprise located in Podkarpacie to use in the sequential way the Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method. The aim was to analyse of unconformity (porosity cluster) on the turbine outlet nozzle and identify the root of its creation. In the enterprise, the quality analysis of the products with a fluorescent method was carried out, but after identifying the unconformity, non-analysis of their reason for their occurrence was not practiced. Therefore, it was intentional to propose the use of sequence i.e. Ishikawa diagram and 5Why method to identify the root of unconformity. The subject of study was the turbine outlet nozzle, on which the fluorescent method the porosity cluster was identified. With the use of the Ishikawa diagram, the main cause of the problem was pointed (unconformity during production), and by the 5Why method the root cause of the problem, i.e. unconformity material from the supplier, was identified. The proposed method sequence is a simple and effective way to make analyses of unconformities and it can be used in different products and service enterprises.
Solid polymer electrolytes based on polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) doped with LiPF6 have been prepared using solution casting technique. Electrical properties of prepared electrolyte films were analyzed using AC impedance spectroscopy. The ionic conductivity was found to increase with increasing salt concentration. The maximum conductivity of 8.94 × 10−3 S·cm−1 was obtained at ambient temperature for the film containing 20 mol% of LiPF6. The conductivity enhancement was correlated to the enhancement of available charge carriers. The formation of a complex between the polymer and salt was confirmed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR). The optical nature of the polymer electrolyte films was analyzed through UV-Vis spectroscopy.
Kibrom M. Alula, James H. Resau and Osman V. Patel
Alteration in gravitational load impacts homeorhetic response in rat dams which affects neonatal pup survival. However, the effects of hypergravity (HG) exposure on the abundance of apoptosis-associated proteins in mammary epithelial cells (MECs) have not been characterized. Therefore, we examined whether chronic exposure to HG from midpregnancy alters the abundance of proapoptotic proteins in MECs during the late pregnancy and early lactation. A group of pregnant Sprague Dawley rats were exposed to either HG (2g) or normo-gravity (1g: stationary control [SC]) from days 11 to 20 of gestation (G20). Another set of animals were investigated from day 11 of pregnancy through days 1 and 3 (P1 and P3, respectively) postpartum. Quantitative (pixels [px]/lobule) immunohistochemistry at G20 of Cleaved Caspase-3 (CC-3), Tumor Protein p53 (P53), and vitamin D receptor (VDR) revealed that all the three proteins were increased (p<0.01) in HG rats compared to SC animals. At P1, the HG group had twofold higher (p<0.001) expression of CC-3 relative to the SC group. Approximately, 50% (p<0.001) more VDR was detected in the HG cohorts than SC at P3. These results suggest that a shift in g-load upregulates the expression of key proapoptotic proteins during the pregnancy-to-lactation transition in the rat MECs.