This study’s purpose was to investigate any possible relationship between the goal perspectives (task and ego orientation) and volitional competences (persistence, expedience, and purposefulness) in physical activities settings. Participants were 134 people with a physical disability (103 men and 31 women) with age ranging from 14 to 67 years. All participants participated in physical activities. Participants filled out the Measure Athletes’ Volition – Short (MAV-S), and Task and Ego Orientation in Sports Questionnaire (TEOSQ). Results revealed that volitional competencies are predictors goal perspectives in physical activity settings. In addition, the findings showed that the expedience is a stronger predictor to task orientation, while persistence competence is to ego orientation. In conclusion, the present study is considered to offer new knowledge on the achievement goal orientation people with physical disabilities in physical activity contexts. The first one is that volitional competencies (expedience and purposefulness) are significantly positive predictors of task orientation. The second conclusion is that persistence competence is significantly positive predictor, while purposefulness competence is negative predictor of ego orientation.
Since the Ancient Greek athletics and through the revivals of the Olympic Movement and the first modern Olympics in Athens in 1896, countries, cities and governments have sought to take advantage by hosting Olympic Games and other sport events. The purpose of this study is to analyze the different facets of country image through the evolution of the Olympic movement. Countries and governments used and will continue to use the Games to renovate infrastructure, build new facilities, expose local products and new technologies, leverage tourism, improve the local and international political and social image, promote tourism and show superiority on the sports field that will enable them to try and reach their economic, political and social goals. The article is significant as it analyzes how countries, cities, communities, and other pressure groups used the Olympic Games, since the revival of the Olympic Movement in the late 19th century, the new traditions after World War I, the political era after World War II and during the Cold War, the commercialized era and the legacy-oriented era in early 21st century.
In many countries, including Sri Lanka, control of sports is connected to political power of the state and therefore, the political patronage decisively influences sports, both in and out of the playground. This study looks at few identified areas relating to the impact of mal-governance and corruption in sports administration, and how general governance structure adversely affects sports integrity in Sri Lanka. The content analysis was performed on articles pertaining to the sport corruption in Sri Lanka. The analysis has shown that the sport corruption is a main and considerable issue in Sri Lanka due to the several reasons. The study recommended that the proper governance policy should be invented to the sport sector to prevent this issue.
Mass-media is often called „the guard dog of society” due to its role in alerting the population when an issue is identified and this aspect is feasible also in sports media. This research analyses the media’s roles, responsibilities and its relationship with whistleblowers. The main focus of this presentation is on methods used by journalists in order to identify and research sensitive subjects such as corruption, doping and other cases of harmful irregularities in sport. Based on interviews with journalists from Romania, using a qualitative interpretation of their speech, it will be possible to see behind the façade of the journalist-sources relationship. „How could we increase the rate of investigations and the number of whistleblowers in sport?” is a central question of this research. The study examines also how to ensure a more critical approach to the task of exploring the influences in Romanian sports and in what manner this case could be framed in the global context. It helps to understand the potential of sports communication and educational journalism to influence in a positive manner the dynamics of reporting everyday issues and eruptive scandals in sport. An inquiring and sceptical media could help more to enhance transparency and encourage other sports stars or sports people to take action.
Deborah Agnew, Kathryn Jackson, Shane Pill and Christine Edwards
The aim of this research was to investigate the current life skills education programs offered by the Australian Football League (AFL) for elite footballers in order to determine the retention of life skill knowledge and transfer beyond sport. Life skill education in sport is an increasing phenomenon. Life skills sport programs are capable of delivering positive outcomes when nurtured through a deliberately designed curriculum and purposeful teaching strategies. However, it is not known how life skills are learned and importantly what the impact of life skills education on long term behavioural changes is. It is apparent from the literature that there is a need to identify how knowledge is acquired and importantly retained through life skills education programs. This was a qualitative research project from a life history perspective. Twenty footballers who had been delisted from an elite Australian football club and had subsequently returned to a South Australian state-based football club took part in semi-structured interviews. The data was analysed through an inductive thematic analysis. Two themes emerged from the data: football related development and holistic development. It was clear that football clubs placed importance on the development of life skills that transfer beyond the sport. However, given the footballers in this research have not fully transferred into life after sport, their perception of the broader transferability of their life-skill development beyond sport is limited. This research concludes that the current format of life skill education (delivering content) that the players in this study were exposed to was not effective because the players failed to be able to make connections from the program to life outside of football. Therefore, the programs are unlikely to have any long-term benefit to player health and well-being during their post-elite football life.
Performance enhancing drugs (PEDs) crises in sport provide stories for the mass media. From individuals such as Ben Johnson and Lance Armstrong, to countries and organisations such as Russian Athletics and Major League Baseball. More recently, research has emerged that suggests that those who take drugs, even the once, are permanently advantaged over those who never have (Egner et al., 2013; Eriksson, 2006). This has expanded existing arguments related to PEDs, even extending debate to one that argues that PED use should be monitored and legalised in order to create a level playing field – as opposed to ‘banning’ athletes. In contrast, there are varying reasons for the rationale of ‘clean’ sports. In the first kind of discussion related to this the central premise is often about health concerns and PED use. In the second discussion, we hear much about cheating, unfairness, and the perversion of sport (Schneider & Butcher, 2000). At the present time, the World Anti-Doping Agency (WADA) police PED use in sport and use Anti-Doping Rule Violations (ADRVs) that allow a sliding scale of transgressions with lifetime bans not given in the first instance of a failed test. Put simply then, these ADRVs do not facilitate a system for those not wishing to compete with others who, at any time, have used PEDs. However, in the 1980’s a number of people in Britain made the decision to distance themselves from what they saw as significant doping in British and international Weightlifting. They achieved this through creating competitive strength organisations dedicated to a drug free for life ethos. In this paper I draw on the experiences and reflections of some of these key people, and contend that it was the ideology of fairplay that influenced this movement, and that the rules on PED use should not be fully authoritative and determinate.
Barbara Frączek, Andrzej Grzelak and Andrzej Tadeusz Klimek
The purpose of this study was to estimate the daily energy expenditure (DEE) of 30 Polish elite athletes (15 women and 15 men aged 20 to 34 years) representing aerobic-endurance sports and speed-strength sports and to compare the obtained values with energy requirement norms recommended for athletes. Participants’ DEE was measured for seven days using a chronometric-tabular method and a kinematic method. The kinematic method provided significantly lower values of DEE, by 25%. Mean DEEs obtained for female aerobic-endurance and speed-strength athletes were 3042.6 ± 389 and 3255.7 ± 359 kcal/24h (a chronometric-tabular method) and 2230.9 ± 209 and 2346.3 ± 355 (the kinematic method), respectively. The differences between the two groups were not statistically significant (p > 0.05). Male athletes’ mean DEEs were significantly higher (p < 0.05): 3778.0 ± 657 and 4036.7 ± 532 kcal/24h (a chronometric-tabular method) for aerobic-endurance athletes and 2983.3 ± 545 and 2970.4 ± 345 (the kinematic analysis) for speed-strength athletes. As in the case of female athletes, the differences were not significant (p > 0.05). While no evidence was found that the type of sport alone could cause significant differences in the overall mean DEE between aerobic endurance athletes and speed-strength athletes, athletes’ sex significantly differentiated women from men in that respect (the latter’s DEE was significantly greater). Such differences were not noted, though, when athletes’ relative DEE (adjusted for body mass and body composition) were compared. The study revealed that the actual energy requirements of individual athletes can vary in a wide range and that they can be different from recommended energy intake.
Fabio Giuliano Caetano, Vitor Panula da Silva, Ricardo da Silva Torres, Ricardo de Oliveira Anido, Sergio Augusto Cunha and Felipe Arruda Moura
The purpose of this study was to analyse the dynamics of play based on dyads during soccer matches, according to the competition level, period of the matches, and playing positions. We recorded eight Brazilian soccer matches (four of the national and four of the regional level), using up to six digital cameras (30 Hz). The position information of the 204 players in the eight matches was obtained using an automatic tracking system. The Euclidean distance between the nearest opponents was calculated over time to define the dyads. The interaction between the components of dyads was assessed by the distances between players and was compared among the different positions (defender, full-back, defensive midfielder, midfielder, and forward), match periods (15, 30, 45, 60, 75, and 90 min), and competition levels. Results showed smaller distances for the national level dyads, compared to the regional matches. Greater distances between the players were found in the last 15 minutes of the matches, compared to the other periods. The full-backs were more distant from opposing players compared to players from other playing positions. Thus, coaches should consider the characteristics of each playing position and the greater proximity between opponents’ players in top-level competition for the development of tactical proficiency of the players.
Marcos A. Michaelides, Koulla M. Parpa and Anthos I. Zacharia
The purpose of this study was to evaluate abdominal strength in professional soccer players and compare the findings to their lower body strength. An observational design was used to examine abdominal and lower body strength using two functional performance tests (a lower body isokinetic test and an isometric abdominal test, respectively). One hundred and thirty-two professional male soccer players from Cyprus’s first and second divisions participated in this study. Testing included three and twenty-five maximal concentric flexion and extension repetitions at angle speeds of 60°/s (degrees/second) and 300°/s, respectively. On a separate occasion, participants completed two trials on an isometric device (ABTEST Gen. 3 system) for evaluation of abdominal strength. At both isokinetic speeds of 300°/s and 60°/s, abdominal strength had low to moderate significant correlations (p < .05) with quadriceps and hamstring strength. Coefficients of determination (R2) demonstrated that the variability in isokinetic variables accounted for only 14-16% of the variability of abdominal strength. Abdominal strength appears to be high in professional soccer players, but is not dependent on the sports level and/or a playing position. The results of this study demonstrate that abdominal strength and knee joint strength need to be evaluated separately.
Diana Amado, Miryam Maestre, Carlos Montero-Carretero, Pedro Antonio Sánchez-Miguel and Eduardo Cervelló
The current study aimed to evaluate the determinant factors of athletes´ internal positive self-talk that might lead to decreased anxiety and increased performance. The sample consisted of 191 male and female athletes ranging in age from 14 to 35 years old. They played soccer, volleyball and basketball and they were cadets (43%), juniors (29.6 %) and adults (27.4%). Results showed that satisfaction of the basic psychological needs was the strongest predictor of positive self-talk or positive thoughts during competition. Specifically, perception of autonomy was the strongest predictor, because it positively predicted concentration, control of anxiety and instructions, followed by perception of competence, which positively predicted confidence. Finally, team sports coaches should promote perception of autonomy and competence in their athletes, with the aim of enhancing more positive self-talk in competition, which may promote a better performance.