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Effective Width Rule in the Analysis of Footing on Reinforced Sand Slope

Abstract

This paper presents the results obtained from an experimental programme and numerical investigations conducted on model tests of strip footing resting on reinforced and unreinforced sand slopes. The study focused on the determination of ultimate bearing capacity of strip footing subjected to eccentric load located either towards or opposite to the slope facing. Strip footing models were tested under different eccentricities of vertical load. The obtained results from tests conducted on unreinforced sand slope showed that the increase in eccentricity of applied load towards the slope facing decreases the ultimate bearing capacity of footing. Predictions of the ultimate bearing capacity obtained by the effective width rule are in good agreement with those proposed from the consideration of total width of footing subjected to eccentric load. The ultimate bearing capacity of an eccentrically loaded footing on a reinforced sand slope can be derived from that of axially loaded footing resting on horizontal sand ground when adopting the effective width rule and the coefficient of reduction due to the slope. When increasing the distance between the footing border to the slope crest, for unreinforced and reinforced ground slope by geogrids, the ultimate bearing capacity of footing is no more affected by the slope ground.

Open access
Global Stability For Double-Diffusive Convection In A Couple-Stress Fluid Saturating A Porous Medium

Abstract

We show that the global non-linear stability threshold for convection in a double-diffusive couple-stress fluid saturating a porous medium is exactly the same as the linear instability boundary. The optimal result is important because it shows that linearized instability theory has captured completely the physics of the onset of convection. It is also found that couple-stress fluid saturating a porous medium is thermally more stable than the ordinary viscous fluid, and the effects of couple-stress parameter (F ) , solute gradient ( S f ) and Brinkman number ( D a ) on the onset of convection is also analyzed.

Open access
Analysis of thin-walled beams with variable monosymmetric cross section by means of Legendre polynomials

Abstract

This article deals with the vibrations of a nonprismatic thin-walled beam with an open cross section and any geometrical parameters. The thin-walled beam model presented in this article was described using the membrane shell theory, whilst the equations were derived based on the Vlasov theory assumptions. The model is a generalisation of the model presented by Wilde (1968) in ‘The torsion of thin-walled bars with variable cross-section’, Archives of Mechanics, 4, 20, pp. 431–443. The Hamilton principle was used to derive equations describing the vibrations of the beam. The equations were derived relative to an arbitrary rectilinear reference axis, taking into account the curving of the beam axis and the axis formed by the shear centres of the beam cross sections. In most works known to the present authors, the equations describing the nonprismatic thin-walled beam vibration problem do not take into account the effects stemming from the curving (the inclination of the walls of the thin-walledcross section towards to the beam axis) of the analysed systems. The recurrence algorithm described in Lewanowicz’s work (1976) ‘Construction of a recurrence relation of the lowest order for coefficients of the Gegenbauer series’, Applicationes Mathematicae, XV(3), pp. 345–396, was used to solve the derived equations with variable coefficients. The obtained solutions of the equations have the form of series relative to Legendre polynomials. A numerical example dealing with the free vibrations of the beam was solved to verify the model and the effectiveness of the presented solution method. The results were compared with the results yielded by finite elements method (FEM).

Open access
Comprehensive Aviaton System of Flying Crew Improving Safety in the Aircraft Operation

Abstract

The article describes 10 known programmes of practical flight training in military aviation – specialization: Multi-Mission Tactical Jet Pilot, which is the highest level of military pilot training in all types of military and civil aviation – comparable only to the level of training and experience of the pilot-instructor of the Military Aviation School. The presented comparison was developed on the basis of literature research from the point of view of, among others, an aircraft operation engineer and a pilot-instructor.

Open access
Estimation of an Airfoil Drag at High Angles of Attack from PIV Data

Abstract

The paper presents application of Particle Image Velocimetry for determination of an airfoil’s drag coefficient in wind tunnel tests. The purpose of the study was to investigate the feasibility of using PIV as an alternative to pressure rake measurements, especially at high angles of attack. The integral momentum concept was applied for determination of fluid drag from experimental low speed wind tunnel data. The drag coefficient was calculated from velocity and pressure rake data for intermediate angles of attack from 5° to 10°. Additionally, the experimental results were compared to panel method results. After validating the procedures at low angles of attack, the drag coefficient was calculated at close to critical angles of attack. The presented study proved that PIV technique can be considered as an attractive alternative for drag coefficient determination of an airfoil.

Open access
Modelling of the Aerospace Structure Demonstrator Subcomponent

Abstract

Carbon-epoxy composite materials, due to their high strength in relation to mass, are increasingly used in the construction of aircraft structures, however, they are susceptible to a number of damages. One of the most common is delamination, which is a serious problem in the context of safe operation of such structures. As part of the TEBUK project, the Institute of Aviation has developed a methodology for forecasting the propagation of delamination. In order to validate the proposed method, an aerial structure demonstrator, modelled on the horizontal stabilizer of the I-23 Manager aircraft, was carried out. However, in order to carry out the validation, it was necessary to "simplify" the demonstrator model. The paper presents a numerical analysis conducted in order to separate from the TEBUK demonstrator model a fragment of the structure, which was used to study the delamination area, as an equivalent of the whole demonstrator. Subcomponent selection was carried out in several stages, narrowing down the analysed area covering delamination in subsequent steps and verifying the compliance of specific parameters with the same parameters obtained in a full demonstrator model. The parameters compared were: energy release rate values on the delamination front line and strain values in the delamination area. The numerical analyses presented in the paper were performed with the use of the MSC.Marc/Mentat calculation package. As a result of the analyses, a fragment of the structure was selected, which allows to significantly reduce the time and labour consumption of the production of the studied object, as well as to facilitate experimental research.

Open access
The Possibility of Ultraviolet Enceladus’ Observations from Stratospheric Balloons

Abstract

Stratospheric balloons are very important sources for space and terrestrial observation experiments in many disciplines. Instruments developed for astrophysical measurements are usually reusable. It is also possible to observe both hemispheres including observations from the polar and equatorial regions for thirty days or even longer. On the other hand the UV atmospheric transmittance window was used for the astrophysical observations less often than visible optical bands. At the end of the 2017 there are a few scientific groups working on near-UV or UV spectrographs and cameras for balloon flights.

In this paper we are discussing the possibility of ultraviolet measurement of Enceladus, an icy Saturnian moon, surface reflectance between 200 and 400 nm from the 20-50 km altitudes. At visible and near infrared optical channels Enceladus’ reflectance is very high (near 1.0). This value is consistent with a surface composed of water ice, however at some ultraviolet wavelengths Enceladus reflectance is lower than it would be expected for this type of surface. The scientific research done in the last decade was focused on H2O, NH3, and tholin particles detection on the Enceladus’ surface as a reason of low UV reflectance phenomenon. Continuous observation of Enceladus’ UV reflectance variability from stratospheric balloons may be interesting and may give us the proof of the presence of biomarkers or/and tholin particles.

Open access
Rotorcraft in the Performance Based Navigation International Civil Aviation Organization Implementation

Abstract

European Commision adopted in July new regulations about laying down airspace usage requirements and operating procedures concerning performance based navigation. It is next step in realization of the the global program PBN ICAO. At the 36th General Assembly of ICAO held in 2007, the Republic of Poland agreed to ICAO resolution A36-23 which urges all States to implement PBN. In future aviation concepts the use of Performance Based Navigation (PBN) is considered to be a major Air Traffic Management (ATM) concept element. ICAO has drafted standards and implementation guidance for PBN in the ICAO Doc 9613 “PBN Manual”. The Based Performance Navigation Concept represents and shift from sensor-based to performance based navigation connected with criteria for navigation: accuracy, integrity, availability, continuity and functionality depending on the phase of the flight. Through PBN and changes in the communication, surveillance and ATM domain, many advanced navigation applications are possible to improve airspace efficiency, improve airport sustainability, reduce the environmental impact of air transport in terms of noise and emission, increase safety and improve flight efficiency.

Open access
Experimental bearing capacity of eccentrically loaded foundation near a slope

Abstract

Based on the response of small-scale model square footing, the present paper shows the results of an experimental bearing capacity of eccentrically loaded square footing, near a slope sand bed. To reach this aim, a steel model square footing of (150 mm × 150 mm) and a varied sand relative density of 30%, 50% and 70% are used. The bearing capacity-settlement relationship of footing located at the edge of a slope and the effect of various parameters such as eccentricity (e) and dimensions report (b/B) were studied. Test results indicate that ultimate bearing capacity decreases with increasing load eccentricity to the core boundary of footing and that as far as the footing is distant from the crest, the bearing capacity increases. Furthermore, the results also prove that there is a clear proportional relation between relative densities –bearing capacity. The model test provides qualitative information on parameters influencing the bearing capacity of square footing. These tests can be used to check the bearing capacity estimated by the conventional methods.

Open access