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Open access

Adrian Sadłowski

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The article analyses the influence of optional instruments applied in Poland as part of the first pillar of the Common Agricultural Policy on the average support provided to farms in individual provinces.

Materials and methods: The study was based on data from the Agency for Restructuring and Modernisation of Agriculture as well as quantitative and analytical methods, especially simulations and comparative variant analysis.

Results: The optional instruments applied in Poland increased the average support provided to farms in central and eastern Poland. The average amount of support paid per farm would have been bigger in northern, western and southern provinces if optional instruments had not been implemented. Primarily, the introduction of both redistributive payment and production-related support (all forms of this support taken together) resulted in a decrease in the average aid per holding in the same group of provinces and at the same time an increase in this size in other provinces (compared to the situation in which the amounts for financing these instruments would be distributed under the single area payment).

Conclusions: The analysis of the influence of redistributive payment and coupled support on the average amount of financial aid per farm in individual provinces shows that the consequences of using these instruments were very similar to each other in their effect on the variable under study.

Open access

Piotr Frączek and Patrycja Pater

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The aim of the paper is to identify non-economic factors influencing employment in non-governmental organizations in the Subcarpathian Province.

Materials and methods: Surveys were conducted in a group of 30 people managing non-governmental organizations.

Results: In the Subcarpathian Province, the factors not connected to economy that encourage involvement in the work of non-governmental organisations include education, marital status, labour market activity, gender, religiousness, and moral authority associated with charitable activities. The factors such as age, personal experience of difficult life situations, or observing charity activities done by family members and friends have an insignificant effect on the involvement in the work of nongovernmental entities.

Conclusions: The activities of state institutions of social policy whose goal is to increase the participation of citizens in the third sector entities should aim to give them an opportunity of obtaining the highest level of education possible, stable employment in the labour market, as well as creating conditions for families to function properly. Moreover, public institutions should conduct social campaigns to show citizens that working in the third sector enriches their social and personal life.

Open access

Mieczysław Adamowicz and Magdalena Zwolińska-Ligaj

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The subject of the analysis is the concept of rural development in the European Union countries and its connection with the evolution of the common agricultural policy and the transformation of the cohesion policy. The aim of the study is to discover and assess the scale and method of supporting the rural development in the European Union countries through common agricultural policy and to present the underlying theoretical-cognitive and political-practical premises for shaping rural development strategies.

Materials and methods: The official documents and subject literature are submitted for critical analysis and evaluation by authors.

Results: This paper presents methods of defining and classifying rural areas and rural development through common agricultural policy and cohesion policy. It specifically outlines the concepts of multi-functional and intelligent development linked to the Europe 2020 strategy and the Cork political declarations. The new concept of smart villages and rural-urban partnership is also presented.

Conclusion: The processes of rural policy separation and the need for creating national methods of the coordination of community policies and the use of European funds are indicated.

Open access

Faith Lawrence and Christian M. Rogerson

Abstract

Local economic development agencies (LEDAs) are increasingly important actors in place-based local economic development particularly in the global South. In South Africa there has been an expanded role for LEDAs in terms of the policy significance of local economic development. Although considerable research has been undertaken concerning the merits, challenges and contributions of LED in South Africa only limited material is available concerning the institutional and organisational arrangements to support the implementation of LED. Using policy documents, close engagement with the key national policy-making government departments and a national survey of the activities, operational challenges, and institutional constraints facing LEDAs, the findings from this investigation provide new insight into their role in place-based development. From the unfolding South African experience the strategic establishment of LEDAs potentially can contribute to maximizing the efficiency of place-based strategies. Arguably, key findings confirm the important contribution that LEDAs can make to locality development in the global South albeit that contribution is influenced by context realities.

Open access

Danuta Guzal-Dec

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The article presents the concept of smart villages formulated in EU documents. Its purpose is to characterize the concept of smart villages - its assumptions, possibilities and implementation limitations.

Materials and methods: Literature studies and the analysis of documents.

Results: A comparative analysis of the smart villages and smart city concept was performed. The theoretical foundations and the determinants of its implementation were discussed.

Conclusions: The concept of smart villages provides an answer to the search for ways of implementing the concept of sustainable development. The concept is in the initial phase of its formulation and application. It is intended to strengthen the territorial capital of the countryside, while social and technological innovations are a tool for its implementation. Among the barriers to implementing this concept the following ones have to be mentioned: low openness of the rural community to change, low innovation capacity and low level of social capital, low capacity of the local markets, spatial distance, poorly developed transport and communication network.

Open access

Dan-Cristian Dabija, Brînduşa Mariana Bejan and David B. Grant

Abstract

Customer loyalty enables companies to outperform competitors and better satisfy customers’ needs and desires. People today are increasingly interested in buying green or sustainable products, pursuing responsible consumption, getting involved in environmental protection activities and preserving resources. These key elements of sustainability are crucial in retailer strategies for approaching customers, strategies encompassing both communication and well-structured offers of sustainable, green and environmentally friendly products to gain customers’ loyalty and assist them in adopting responsible (green) consumption behaviours. This may not be the case in all retail markets or sub-markets, however. This paper investigates these issues in the context of the emerging European economy of Romania, using a survey conducted in four major retail segments comprising more than 3,000 respondents. Using structural equation modelling the authors reveal that Romanian retailers are concerned with drawing customers and gaining their loyalty by adopting strategies based on the principles of sustainability. The results indicate that in this emerging market behavioural antecedents differ across the analysed retail formats in building green loyalty, which represents a challenge for retailers in their attempt to draw, satisfy and bind consumers to their retail formats and stores. At the same time, there is also a growing awareness of green aspects among Eastern Europeans, even if they have been challenged with sustainability issues and the need to adopt green behaviours more recently than their Western European counterparts.

Open access

František Križan, Kristína Bilková, Josef Kunc, Michala Sládeková Madajová, Milan Zeman, Pavol Kita and Peter Barlík

Abstract

The shopping behaviours of teenagers in shopping centres in Bratislava (Slovakia) is compared to those of seniors in this paper. The analysis focuses on the perception of shopping centres by teenagers and seniors in the context of time (shopping frequency), social (with whom they shop) and financial (amount of money spent) factors. The survey was conducted on random samples of 504 teenagers and 431 seniors. To test the hypotheses, group means were evaluated (Analysis of Variance models). When assessing the spatial aspects of teenagers’ and seniors’ shopping behaviours, a concentric zone approach was used. It can be concluded that Bratislava teenagers are not as sensitive consumers as seniors in the context of the variables assessed in the survey. Teenagers perceive shopping centres as a normal part of their consumption behaviours. Seniors perceive the shopping centres less positively and they spent a shorter time there. Also, in the case of seniors, the frequency of their visits to shopping centres increased in the context of their positive perceptions.

Open access

Jakub Taczanowski, Arkadiusz Kołoś, Krzysztof Gwosdz, Bolesław Domański and Robert Guzik

Abstract

The aim of the paper is to identify the main factors and mechanisms behind the development of low-emission public transport vehicles in Polish cities. This innovation is primarily connected with growing environmental requirements for transport, with the EU environmental and transport policies being the key factors. However, strategies of local governments and municipal transport companies as well as the organization of urban transport - which differs significantly between cities - also play an important role. Three basic types of approach towards low-emission buses can be observed in Polish cities: tests of electric and hybrid vehicles, purchases of small quantities of buses in order to implement new solutions, and finally attempts to replace the majority or even the entire transport fleet with low-emission vehicles. It should be emphasised that an important element which affects the development of low emission public urban transport in Poland is the fact that the country has become one of the main bus producers in Europe - a fact which is a result of both large-scale foreign investments and the success of Polish manufacturers.

Open access

Małgorzata Flaga and Monika Wesołowska

Abstract

Eastern regions of Poland are regarded as areas where numerous unfavourable socio-economic phenomena appear and accumulate. These are the results of historical conditions as well as post-war border localization and various processes, primarily in terms of economy. The consequences of the political transformation of the state in the 1990s and profound social and economic changes in recent decades are also crucial drivers of many disadvantageous changes in the region. The article shows population processes which can be recognized nowadays in Eastern Poland, and the attention of the authors is focused on the peripheral rural areas of the region. General tendencies reported in the text are based on the cases from the Lubelskie Voivodeship where concentration of the demographic and social problems is particularly noticeable. The analyses comprise changes of population growth and its components (natural movement and migration), population structures as well as some characteristics concerning the quality and conditions of inhabitants’ lives. The main causes of negative processes shaping the population, including domestic, regional and micro-regional factors, are also presented. The final part of the article deals with the most important outcomes of population changes which are reflected in the progressing ageing of society, the decline of villages and social infrastructure, among other facts. These unfavourable phenomena are shown in the context of the future development of the region.

Open access

Beata Detyna and Agnieszka Mroczek-Czetwertyńska

Summary

Subject and purpose of work: The main objective of the article is to recommend some solutions in the area of e-tourism which could be introduced by the local government in Wałbrzych as part of activities initiated in 2017 for the development of the Smart City concept.

Materials and methods: The implementation of the objective required a detailed analysis and evaluation of the “Strategy for Sustainable Development of Wałbrzych City until 2020”as well as the key task areas of the Smart City Program Council set up in the city, including Task Teams implementing projects of smart urban solutions. In the course of the research, a literature review was also conducted to explore the ways of defining the concept of e-tourism.

Results: As a result of the literature research, the authors emphasized different aspects (dimensions) of e-tourism and described the e-tourism model for tourist consumption. The analysis of the strategic municipal documents showed that they did not contain any direct references and plans regarding the development of activities in the area of e-tourism. The current study offers recommendations for the growth of e-tourism in Wałbrzych.

Conclusions: In the context of the realisation of “Smart City for the city of Wałbrzych” program, the concept of e-tourism, according to the authors, is an opportunity for the development of tourism in the city and in the region. The catalogue of possible solutions is open and their implementation requires taking into account the needs of different groups of stakeholders, including people with disabilities and the elderly.