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Open access

Peter A. Edde

Summary

Tobacco, Nicotiana tabacum, is a high-value crop grown in many temperate and tropical countries of the world. Several insects attack tobacco throughout the season, from transplant production, growth in the field, during storage, and in the marketed product. This review focuses on economically important insects of the seedling tobacco or the growing crop in major tobacco-producing regions of the world. The species covered herein are tobacco aphid, black cutworm, tobacco budworm, tobacco hornworm, tobacco flea beetle, thrips, Japanese beetle, and tobacco wireworm. The occurrence and economic importance of these insects vary from region to region.

For each insect discussed, the following information is provided: the scientific name and taxonomic position of the insect; its geographical distribution; the stage that causes the damage and plant hosts; a brief discussion on classification and description of the species; a summary of the biology and ecology; details regarding pest management, which include scouting-/monitoring methods, action threshold, cultural (non-chemical) methods, natural enemies, and chemical control. In addition, a concluding paragraph is presented on insect pest management for tobacco.

Open access

Carla Johnen and Ilva Daugule

Abstract

Neonates typically have a physiological weight loss (PWL) during the first days of life. Several studies about PWL and its influencing factors have been performed worldwide, resulting in the development of normative charts to identify high risk neonates. Up to now there is neither a study about PWL in Latvia nor charts developed for the Baltic region. The objective of the study was to analyse PWL and associated factors in Latvian neonates as well as to evaluate the possibility to use PWL charts of the American Academy of Paediatrics (AAP). The study included data (gestational week, delivery type, sex, feeding type, health status) of 220 Latvian newborns treated in the neonatology department of Children Clinical Hospital Gaiļezers and in-an out-patient praxis in Riga. Their mean PWL was compared among neonates with different factors and plotted on PWL charts. The mean PWL was 6.4% (SD ± 2.31%) and in univariate analysis it was associated with feeding type (p = 0.06) and health status (p = 0.01). In multiple regression analysis PWL was significantly associated with health status (p = 0.01). The usage of AAP charts could be generally recommended to identify high risk neonates, but development of charts for the Baltics should be discussed..

Open access

Kalvis Pastars, Jānis Zariņš, Juris Tārs, Anna Ivanova and Andrejs Skaģers

Abstract

Radial forearm flap is a gold standard for oral soft tissue defect reconstruction after tumour ablative surgery of oral cancer in advanced stages. The main disadvantage of this flap is donor site morbidity. The goal of our study was to show versatility of lateral arm flap in 34 cases with different oral defects that were reconstructed after tumour ablation, and to analyse complications and donor site morbidity. Thirty-four patients with advanced stage oral cancer (T3 and T4) underwent tumour ablation with or without suspicious lymph node removal and with immediate reconstruction of oral defect with lateral arm flap. Analysis of complications and donor sites morbidity was carried out. The Michigan Hand Outcome Questionnaire was used to evaluate functional and esthetical donor site outcome during at least one year follow up. Thirty-one patients had successful free flap surgery with uneventful post-surgery period. Flap loss due to vascularity problems was in one case (2.9%). The flap success rate was 97.1%. The donor site was closed primarily in all cases and healed uneventfully. The Michigan Hand Outcome Score was average 94.30%. The lateral arm is an excellent choice for oral reconstruction after ablative tumour surgery. It is versatile, safe and reliable for oral reconstruction with very good functional and aesthetical donor site outcome.

Open access

Jurijs Merkurjevs and Aleksejs Jurenoks

Open access

Oļģerts Nikodemus and Māris Kļaviņš

Open access

Jurijs Nazarovs, Regīna Kleina and Sandra Lejniece

Abstract

CD56, p53, and Cyclin D1 detection in plasma cells (PC) can help to predict prognosis of multiple myeloma (MM). Clinical and biochemical prognostic parameters were analysed in a group of 122 patients with primary diagnosed MM in the period 2011–2015. Bone marrow biopsies were analysed with Cyclin D1, p53, CD56 antibodies. Statistical analysis was performed using Microsoft Excel 2010 and Graph Pad Prism 5. Lack of CD56 expression and p53-positivity were significantly correlated with a low glomerular filtration rate (GFR), low platelet count and haemoglobin level, as well as with high serum creatinine levels. Patients with Cyclin D1 expression in PC had a significantly higher serum calcium level and more common osteolytic lesion in bones. CD56-negative as well as p53, Cyclin D1-positive groups had advanced Salmon–Durie MM stages by and significantly higher ß2-microglobulin. Expression of p53, Cyclin D1 and lack of CD56 antigen in PC are negative predictive factors in cases of MM, as these patients were diagnosed as having late Salmon–Durie stage and higher ß2-microglobulin level. Expression of p53 and lack of CD56 antigen in PC is associated with an increased creatinine level in blood and decreased GFR; therefore, these are criteria for chronic renal failure progression and poorer prognosis of MM.

Open access

Sergejs Zadorožnijs and Konstantīns Kalnbērzs

Abstract

Published studies on the accuracy of digital templating in total knee replacement (TKR) have employed standard knee, but not hip-to-ankle radiographs. A retrospective study was conducted in our hospital on patients undergoing TKR due to osteoarthritis in a period of six consecutive months. Templating was performed using a calibrating 25 mm metallic ball and Agfa Orthopaedic Tools software by a surgeon not involved with the operation. The surgeon performing the templating was blinded to the size of the implants inserted. Postoperative knee anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were then checked for the presence of prosthetic overhang of ≥ 3 mm. In total, 132 Caucasian adults were included in the study. Femoral overhang occurred in 33%, whereas tibial overhang in only 6% of cases. The exclusion of prosthetic overhang cases significantly improved the accuracy of size detection; exact match for femur increased from 55% to 69%, and for tibia from 70% to 73%. All implants were predicted to within one size in all cases. Digital templating using a calibrating 25 mm metallic ball, Agfa Orthopaedic Tools software and hip-to-ankle and knee lateral radiographs is an accurate method of predicting the knee implant to within one size. Ignoring this procedure leads to prosthetic overhang.

Open access

Dzintars Ozoliņš and Aija Žileviča

Abstract

The current study explored the possibility to attach bacteria and yeasts to micro-silica particles. The aim of the study was to determine possible differences in the speed of rates of turbidity (or speed of adherence) between suspensions of bacteria and yeasts with and without silica micro-particles. Some important findings were demonstrated, which might be promising for developing of a new diagnostic approach to distinguish bacteria from yeasts. Addition of SiO2 beads to bacterial suspensions resulted in a significantly faster decrease of turbidity rates in comparison with corresponding suspensions without SiO2 beads. However, yeasts adhered to silica micro particles quicker in comparison with the speed of adherence of bacteria to silica.

Open access

Wolf-Dieter Heller and Gerhard Scherer

Open access

Pablo Guindos, Apurva Patel and Minia-Xisela Rodriguez

Summary

This research analysed in detail the performance of the new alternative ignition propensity test prescribed in the standard ASTM E2187-16, which is based on the utilization of a substrate comprising a thin steel plate along with one filter paper. The analysis was performed both experimentally, by means of infrared temperature measurements, and theoretically by using a comprehensive finite element model that was able to predict the temperature of the substrate with errors of only 7.3% and 15.7% in space and time, respectively. While the new alternative test was able to reduce the variability of the heat absorbance from 33% to only 4% with respect to the conventional tests, it showed several downsides that critically reduce its reliability. The heat absorbance of the alternative test did not correctly emulate the conventional procedure as it absorbed as much heat as twice. The gravity effect on the plate increased the air gap thickness more than twice, thereby decreasing potentially the heat absorbance by 13%. In addition, a mechanical analysis showed that compressive stresses due to high temperature gradients could cause irreversible buckling, creep and yielding of the plate. Experiments showed that in fact the concavity of the plate was prone to increase after testing. Assuming the maximum concavity allowed by the standards, the heat absorbance was halved in respect to a perfectly flat plate. In view of these results, the utilization of the conventional test method still appears clearly more appropriate than the alternative one.