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Open access

Raul-Gabriel Ilea, Cosmina-Andreea Manea and Marina-Aurelia Antonescu

Abstract

The urban climate is a specific type of topoclimate characteristic to big cities, like Bucharest, which is formed due to the horizontal and vertical expansion of the space, the nature of the materials used for constructions, the pollution, and other side effects of the socio-economic activities. The main objective of this study is the analysis of the variability of four main meteorological elements (air temperature, atmospheric precipitation, relative air humidity, duration of sunshine) in Bucharest and its neighboring area, in relation to the built space evolution. In the last decades, Bucharest has been experiencing an exceptional development, materialized both by territorial expansion, as well as structural-functional and architectural-urbanistic transformations. The fact that the population of the city is increasing, correlated with the expansion of the built space area, suggests the intensity of the urban sprawl phenomena. This has numerous side effects, among which is the creation of a specific topoclimate, different from the one in the periphery. As an example, the results of the meteorological analysis showed that the air temperature is higher inside the city, at the Filaret station, with 0.1ºC, than at the periphery (Baneasa station) and the periurban area (Afumati station).

Open access

Ľubor Dlháň, Roman Krylov, Martin Kopáni and Roman Boča

Abstract

Bovine spleen has been used as a sample for deep magnetochemical investigation. Temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility and field dependence of the magnetization reveal a paramagnetic behaviour that violates the Curie law. The zero-field cooled magnetization and field cooled magnetization experiments show the bifurcation point at ca T C = 20 K and the blocking temperature T B = 10 K confirming a dominating portion of ferritin along with the organic tissue. There is a remnant magnetization at temperature below 20 K and the search for the magnetic hysteresis was positive.

Open access

Samoilă Grigoraș Claudia, Ioniță Ion, Niacșu Lilian, Grigoraș Georgel and Blebea-Apostu Ana Maria

Abstract

Land degradation has been recognized as an important environmental threat in the Moldavian Plateau of eastern Romania. This study was designed to estimate the magnitude of land degradation and to review land management in a small catchment in the Central Moldavian Plateau. Several methods were deployed to estimate soil erosion losses, gully distribution, landslide inventory and reservoir sedimentation rates. Results obtained in the study area of 7,766 ha, of which 31% is arable and 32% native forest, show that the mean value of soil losses by water erosion on agricultural land is 19.0 t ha−1y−1. By adding the woodland contribution, this value significantly decreases to 12.8 t ha−1y−1. Then, a large proportion of land (58%) is covered by landslides. Most of them are shallow and dormant (stable), and the active ones form only ~2% of the total landslide area. Siltation rates determined using 137Cs reflect the impact of land management on deposition patterns in reservoirs. Proper conservation measures were applied over a 20-year time-span from 1970-1990. Since 1991 the contour farming system collapsed and returned to the traditional ‘up-and-down slope’ farming system on very small plots.

Open access

Ionac Nicoleta, Tudor Ion, Grigore Elena, Constantin Dana, Uriţescu Bogdan and Cică Roxana

Abstract

The increasing frequency and intensity of climate and weather extremes due to ongoing climate changes can cause major property and infrastructure damage. Mainly representing unforeseen and unavoidable hazards, some environmental and business laws broadly assimilate them as force majeure situations, excepting parties affected by their impact from prior commitments. The present study, debating on the way law courts should broadly address the force majeure clause when objective and accurate evidence is being provided, describes the terms of a legal dispute between the owners of two neighboring buildings which have seriously been damaged by a severe thunderstorm developing over the Bucharest-Otopeni town area, on the 22nd July 2014. Consistent meteorological evidence (weather reports and forecasts, aerological diagrams, radar and satellite images, air-pressure distribution maps, synoptic messages etc.) have been presented to the law court to document, in an unbiased manner, on the extraordinary, external, unforeseen and unavoidable weather event representing the cause of a civil legal dispute. The extent to which the law court may take all these into consideration under the provisions of the force majeure clause is still to be explored.

Open access

Ștefania Chirica, Mihail Luca and Iustina Lateș

Abstract

Water losses are present in all water supply system pipes. Their parameters and value vary depending on the constructional and functional features of the pipes (diameter, material, pressure, embedding environment, location, position etc.). The phenomenon is present in all water supply systems networks in Romania as well as globally. The water supply pipes within the regional water supply system are located in areas with diversified relief, from plateaus and hills to plains. The studies and researches were carried out in the geographical placement area of the Timişeşti-Iaşi pipeline. The geographic area studied is enclosed in Siret and Prut hydrographic basins. The paper aims to establish a correlation between the detection methods of water leaks from pipes and the areal relief features in Iaşi County. At the same time, it is highlighted the impact of the variation of the geographical relief characteristics on the water loss management on different type of pipes.

Open access

Mirela Danubianu, Cristian Teodorescu and Isabela Corneanu

Abstract

Along with the well-known attributes of mankind's future (sustainable, socially inclusive, environmentally-friendly), the last few years we was witnessing the appearance of a new digital attribute. The Internet of Things (IoT) is the ongoing digital revolution that attempts to put into practice all the benefits of explosive development of digital technologies and associated communication capabilities. The huge amount of information collected by computerized planning, production management, technology risk practice and health hazards monitoring has to serve both economic development, advanced management resources, financial profit, and a better protected environment. The IoT Revolution is in its early stages and its focus is on assuring the associated infrastructure as quickly as possible (hardware, BigData software, sensor systems, protected sensitive data, safe communications). The first results are expected in optimizing and streamlining technologies in the management of non-renewable resources. It is appreciated that by 2030, the value added by IoT will amount to about $14 trillion in industry alone. But it would be a mistake to stop the benefits of IoT there. The authors devise a SWOT (Strength, Weakness, Opportunities and Traits) analysis, and evaluate the benefits and risks of aligning environmental/social policies to the IoT, proposing a brevity of measures to ensure that the sustainability is considered in the IoT implementation at all stages and at all levels: enterprise, industrial, geographical area, global region. The IoT vision and mission are presented in light of this approach, strategic objectives and important action directions. It also highlights the ethical issues related to the development of an interconnected world through IoT (where unrestrained access to information is stopped, who and for whose control this access has been made, etc.). The terms IoE (Internet of Environment) and IoS (Internet of Sustainability) are suggested.

Open access

Maryam Rashidi, Atefeh Chamani and Minoo Moshtaghi

Abstract

In recent decades, detrimental effects of roads have been the focus of numerous studies. Roadways have various negative effects, such as habitat fragmentation, noise and air pollution, on bird communities. This study was aimed to investigate the effects of traffic noise on the bird’s abundance during autumn period. Field operations were performed in a forest located parallel to a main high-traffic highway. The bird’s abundance was recorded using a point counting method at 27 points along three transects (65, 335 and 605 m from the road). The counting at each point was conducted every five minutes and repeated once every week (12 times during autumn). Environmental indices including the number of trees with DBH of over 20 cm, the number of standing dead trees, canopy cover percentage and Leq 30 were also measured. A total of 2950 bird belonging to 30 species were observed. The number of dominant species (more than 10) in the area considerably changed as the distance from the road increased. Leq 30 had the greatest correlation coefficient with bird abundance. Therefore, traffic noise has negative effects on the bird’s abundance in this area.

Open access

Asiata Omotayo Ibrahim, Misbaudeen Abdul-Hammed, Samuel Adewale Adegboyega, Monsurat Olajide and Akeem Abefe Aliyu

Abstract

Tomato is a significant vegetable crop with numerous health benefits derived from its carotenoids, flavonoids and other phytonutrients contents. This work studies the nutritional qualities and carotenoids contents of five different cultivars of tomatoes (San Marz, Nasmata, Roma VF, Ogbomoso local and 4-lobes). The variations of pH, titratable acidity, reducing sugar, total solid, lycopene and beta-carotene contents of these tomatoes were investigated under ambient temperature and field ripening techniques and the mean values of these parameters investigated at different ripening stages and techniques were compared. Lycopene contents were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in tomatoes subjected to field ripening compared with those ripened under ambient temperature. The highest lycopene content (17.18 μg/g) was observed in Roma VF cultivar at fully-ripe stage under field ripening technique while the lowest value (0.64 μg/g) was in 4-lobes cultivar at semi-ripe stage under ambient temperature ripening. Similar trend was observed in the variation of betacarotene (a pro-Vitamin A index) among the tomato cultivars. The evaluated reducing sugar contents (ranging from 1.84 to 5.23 μg/g) were significantly higher (p < 0.05) in fully-ripe tomatoes compared to semi-ripe ones under field ripening and the trend was reversed for some cultivars under ambient temperature ripening. The titratable acidities of the tomatoes were significantly higher at the semi-ripe stage (0.24 to 0.38 %) under field ripening than those obtained under ambient temperature ripening (0.15 to 0.25 %). The pH of the tomatoes ranged from 3.58 to 4.07 and 3.46 to 5.40 under field and ambient temperature ripening, respectively, and the higher pH values obtained under ambient temperature ripening condition could make such tomatoes unsuitable in tomato processing plants. Consumption of tomatoes for the purpose of dietary antioxidant lycopene and pro-Vitamin A could maximally be achieved at fully-ripe stage under field ripening condition.

Open access

Joanna Zembrzuska, Dobrochna Ginter-Kramarczyk, Anna Zając, Izabela Kruszelnicka, Michał Michałkiewicz, Zbysław Dymaczewski, Anna Piątkowska and Magdalena Wawrzyniak

Abstract

The article presents results regarding the ibuprofen reduction rate at three various temperature values (8, 18 and 28 °C) which were conducted using a static test in accordance with the PN-C-04645 ‘Water and wastewater. Evaluation of partial biodegradation of anionic and non-ionic surface active substances. Initial test’ standard. A single study cycle including the analysis of ibuprofen degradation rate in specific temperature variants lasted 24 h. The activated sludge for tests was obtained from the aeration zone of a bioreactor localized in the Central Wastewater Treatment Plant in Poznan City (Poland), which was used for inoculation (1 g/dm3) of sterile samples with the medium and ibuprofen (10 mg/dm3) after appropriate pre-treatment (intense aeration for 5 h). The analysis procedure included the separation and concentration of analytes from biodegradation samples by means of solid phase extraction (SPE) and subsequent determination with high performance liquid chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) using an UltiMate 3000 RSLC liquid chromatogram (Dionex, USA) with a tandem API 4000 QTRAP mass spectrometer (Biosystem, MDS Sciex, USA). Both literature review as well as the conducted initial studies confirmed that the removal of ibuprofen proceeds more rapidly at higher temperature values. A higher retention rate also enhanced the reduction of ibuprofen concentration. A decrease of its concentration was observed after 24 h, which reached 40 and 50 % for temperature values of 8 and 18 °C, accordingly, whereas the highest reduction by approx. 65 % was noted at 28 °C.

Open access

Réka Boga, Zsolt Bodor, Katalin Bodor, Szende Tonk, György Deák, Tímea Pernyeszi and Ion-Andrei Nita

Abstract

Trend analysis for potential evapotranspiration (PET) and climatic water balance (CWB) is critical in identifying the particulate matter concentration (PM10) variations. The PET is computed based on the monthly average temperature for the Ciuc basin using Thornthwaite parameterization. The highest levels of evapotranspiration appear during the months of May and June. The lowest levels of particulate concentration characterize the period during April-June. Precipitation is highest during May and June. Particulate matter in the highest cloud water is 0.014 µg/m3/mm during April and 0.010 µg/m3/mm during May. One can observe a significant level of negative correlation between particulate matter concentration, the potential evapotranspiration and precipitation.